Carefully analyze Likert’s Participative Management style and Blake and Mouton’s Grid, bringing out why the two were key aspects of the Human Relations approach
LIKERT’S PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT STYLE Likert outlined four systems of management to describe the relationship, involvement and roles of managers and subordinates in industrial settings. The management systems he outlined include Exploitative Authoritative, Benevolent Authoritative, Consultative System and Participative system. The management systems mentioned is briefly explained as follows; Exploitative authoritative: In this system, managers tend to use threats, fear and punishment to motivate their workers. Managers at the top of the hierarchy make all the decisions and motivation is characterized by threats. Benevolent authoritative: Under this system, motivation is based on the potential for punishment and partially on rewards.
The decision making arena is expanded by allowing the lower level employees to be involved in policy making but major policy decisions are left to those at the top, who have some awareness of the problems that occur at the lower levels. Consultative system: This theory is very close to the human relations theory. Motivation of workers is gained through rewards, occasional punishments, and very little involvement in decision making and goals. Participative system: Likert argued that this was the most effective form of management. The system promotes genuine participation in decision making and setting goals through free-flowing horizontal communication and tapping into the creativity and skills of workers.
Extensive research conducted as early as the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that participative management is particularly well suited to science-based organizations whose key staff are noted for their creativity, intrinsic motivation for work that interests them, stronger affiliation with their discipline than their organization, and sensitivity to directive management (Likert 1969; Marcson 1960; Siepert 1964; Macy 1965; Steele 1969). BLAKE AND MOUTON’S MANAGERIAL GRID
The managerial grid model (1964) originally identified five different leadership styles based on the concern for people and concern for production and was updated with two additional leadership styles with a new element resilience in 1999. The model is represented as a grid with concern for production as the x-axis and concern for people as y- axis; each axis ranges from 1(low) to 9 (high). The resulting leadership styles are as follows: The indifferent style; 1,1 (impoverished style): In this style, managers have low concern for people and production. Managers using this style preserve job and job seniority, protecting themselves by avoiding getting into trouble.
The accommodating style; 1,9 (country club style): This style has a high concern for people and a low concern for production. Managers using this style pay much attention to the security and comfort of the employees, in hopes that this will increase performance. The dictatorial style; 9,1 (produce or perish): With a high concern for production, and a low concern for people, managers using this style find employee needs unimportant, they provide their employees with money and expect performance in return. The status quo style; 5,5 (middle-of-the-road style):
Managers using this style try to balance between company goals and worker’s needs. By giving some concern to both people and production, managers who use this style hope to achieve suitable performance. The sound style; 9,9 (team style): In this style, high concern is paid to both people and production. Managers using this style encourage teamwork and commitment among employees. The opportunistic style (updated addition): This style does not have a fixed location on the grid. Individuals using this style adopt whichever behavior offers the greatest personal benefit
The paternalistic style (updated addition): This style was redefined to alternate between the (1,9) and (9,1) locations on the grid. Managers using this style praise and support, but discourage challenges to their thinking. The Managerial or Leadership Grid becomes a key aspect of the human relations approach when it is used to help managers analyze their own leadership styles through a technique known as grid training. This is done by administering a questionnaire that helps managers identify how they stand with respect to their concern for production and people. The training is aimed at basically helping leaders reach to the ideal state of 9, 9.
REFERENCES Modaff, D.P., Butler, J.A. DeWine, S. (2008). Organizational communication: Foundations, Challenges and Misunderstandings (Third edition) Hall, J.W. (1972), A Comparison of Halpin and Croft’s Organizational Climates and Likert and Likert’s Organizational Systems. Rensis Likert: Management Systems and Styles (2011)
Blake, R.; Mouton, J. (1964). The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence Blake, R; Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III: The key to Leadership Excellence