Smart Grid Technology

A smart grid is an umbrella term that covers modernization of both the transmission and distribution grids.The concept of a smart grid is that of a “digital upgrade” of distribution and long distance transmission grids to both optimize current operations by reducing the losses,as well as open up new markets for alternative energy production India has a power grid that is ripe for renovation and transformation. More than a third of the nation’s grid electricity is lost to power theft and inefficiencies, and that doesn’t include the half of the population that has no grid electricity at all.

For those who do, daily blackouts are a common occurrence, and major system-wide failures, like last year’s blackout that left 600 million people in the dark, point to long-term challenges in matching power supply with booming demand. All of these problems spell opportunity for the smart grid industry. After years of stalled-out attempts to drive investment into grid transformation, India’s central government is now in the midst of its Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme, or R-APDRP, which is directing roughly $10 billion over the coming years to grid modernization.

But India’s smart grid efforts likely won’t play out like those we’ve seen in Europe and North America. Specifically, the failures of India’s previous grid renovation projects have driven today’s R-APDRP program to start with systems to diagnose distribution grid losses in cities and towns across the country, along with proven progress in lowering those losses, before bigger investments can go forward. In other words, big deployments of smart meters, distribution automation systems and other smart grid gear won’t get funding until that critical benchmarking and diagnosis framework is in place.

That means that India could see a much bigger upfront role for the kind of system integration and data analysis work that many U.S. and European utilities are just now starting to add to their multi-million-dollar AMI and DA deployments Those projects are already underway. In January, India’s Ministry of Power named fourteen smart grid projects, combining smart meter deployments and implementation of outage management and peak load management (i.e. demand response), as being eligible for $100 million in funding. Earlier this month, one of these projects, a 1,400-meter deployment in the state of Puducherry, was given the go-ahead to expand to 87,000 meters.

COMPONENTS OF SMART GRID 1.Transmission Automation 2.Distribution Automation 3.Renewable Integration 4.Demand Participation 5.Small appliances / PVEV/ Storage 6.Distributed Generation & Storage 7.Energy Efficiency 8.System operation

LATEST TECHNOLOGY TO BE USED FOR SMART GRID 1) Use of Superconductors for transmission lines, Transformers, Generators, HT Cables Generators, HT Cables – Nano materials going to play a major role. 2) The sophisticated revenue models they will employ to shape customers' behavior. 3) Easy to install, low install, low--cost sensors to measure energy use wi cost sensors to measure energy use with high the high resolution 4) Networked power electronics for everything from solid state New Technology development opportunities

lighting to solar micro inverters 5) Grid scale electricity storage to buffer transient scale in supply and demand 6) Electrified vehicle infrastructure including batteries and charging stations ( Few MW) 7) Universal Remote Control to a Set 7) Universal Remote Control to a Set top Box which includes Home includes Home Control 8) Fuel Cell

LATEST TECHNOLOGY TO BE USED FOR SMART TECHNOLOGY 1) ANALYTICAL TOOLS System performance monitoring, simulation, and prediction Phasor measurement analysis Weather prediction and integration Ultra--fast load flow analysis fast load flow analysis Market system simulation High--speed computing speed computing 2) Different communication choices Ex.Broadband over power New Technology Development opportunities line 3) Wide area monitoring system (WAMS) area monitoring system (WAMS) 4) Dynamic line rating technology 5) Conductor/ compression connector sensor 6) Insulation contamination leakage current sensor 7) Electronic instrument transformer 8) Fault--testing recloser

OVERVIEW OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY * Detect and address emerging problems before they impact service; * Respond to local and system wide inputs and know much more without broader system problems * Incorporate extensive measurements,rapid communications and feedback controls that quickly return the system to a stable state after interruptions or disturbances;

* Automatically adapt protective systems to accommodate changing system conditions; * Reroute power flows,change load patterns,improve voltage profiles and take other corrective steps within seconds of detecting a problem; * Enable loads and distributed resources to participate in operations;

* Be a grid that is self--healing and adaptive,interact healing and adaptive,interactive with consumers and markets, more secure from attacks, accommodate all generation and storage options,accommodate bidirectional energy flow for net metering and predictive rather than just reacting to emergencies.

IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART GRID TECHNOLOGY The smart grid has a lot to do with decentralization i.e distributed generation and storage,distribution system automation and optimization,customer involvement and interaction,plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and even micro grids.That means that it will be necessary to have more intelligence and control beyond generation and transmission throughout the distribution grid and all the way to the retail consumer’s side of the meter.

This will involve few fixed devices like : Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices and distribution automation (DA) devices; Automatic meter reading (AMR) devices and smart meters; Retail premises monitoring and control systems and energy management systems (EMS) and Emerging technologies for monitoring and control,both for electric utilities and for consumers. The Uttar GujratVij Company Ltd (UGVCL) will roll out India's first modernized electrical grid, or the smart grid, in Naroda and Deesa in north Gujarat by April 2014. The process of inviting tenders for the project will begin on December 17 and after a month of evaluation the companies will be selected.