Ohio State Studies Researchers studied the effectiveness of “initiating structure” and “consideration” leadership behaviors.
Subordinates' ratings of their leaders' effectiveness did not depend on the particular style of the leader but on the situation in which the style was used.
University of Michigan Studies
Researchers distinguished between production-centered and employee-centered managers.
→ Production-centered managers – set rigid work standards, organized asks down to the last detail, prescribed work methods o be followed and closely supervised their subordinates' work → Employee-centered managers – encouraged subordinate participation in goal setting and in other work decisions and helped ensure high performance by inspiring trust and respect most effective leadership
Most effective leaders were those who had supportive relationships with their subordinates, tended to use group rather than individual decision making, and encouraged their subordinates to set and achieve high performance goals.
Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton Studies)
developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton identifies 5 different types of management behaviors based on the various ways that task-oriented and employee-oriented styles can interact with each other
Style 1,1 (impoverished management) – low concern for people, low concern for tasks or production laissez-faire management – leader abdicates his or her leadership role
Style 1,9 (country club management) – high concern for employees, low concern for tasks
Style 9,1 (task or authoritarian management) – high concern for production and efficiency, low concern for employees
Style 5,5 (middle-of-the-road management) – an intermediate amount of concern for both production and employee satisfaction
Style 9,9 ( team or democratic management) – high concern for both production and employee morale and satisfaction ; most effective leadership behavior
Hi. Alam kong FC ako sa ginagawa ko pero di ko na talaga matiis eh. Haha. Sorry kung na-intrude ko ang privacy mo dito sa FB. Masyado lang kasi akong na-mesmerized dun sa story mong ICH Book 1. Di ko nga alam kung gagamit ako ng "po at opo" o tatawagin kitang "Ate" habang tinatype ko to.Haha. Kahit hindi ako nagcocomment sa updates mo (sorry po, tinatamad kasi akong gumawa ng account doon :D), gusto ko lang sabihin na nagustuhan ko yung plot ng story mo at grabe ang kaba ko habang papalapit na ako sa ending. Kahit ending na sya, naramdaman ko pa rin yung "thrill".
Hindi nakakasawang ulit-ulitin. Noon pa, curious na talaga ako sa identity mo pero may hint na ako na sa UP ka nag-aaral dahil dun sa jeepney ekek na nasabi mo. :3 "Curiousity killed the cat but satisfaction brought it back." Wala lungs trip ko lang po isingit to. Mehehehe. Nakita ko po kasi yung link para sa FB account mo kaya ni-click ko na. XD First time kong mag-message sa isang writer ng story kaya pagpasensyahan mo na ako kung mukhang walang sense itong na-type kong message. Wahaha. Yun lang, byebye. =) FC ako, SORRY po ulet. :)))) System 4 Management
Rensis Likert, incorporating the basic style categories of task orientation and employee orientation, devised his own model of management effectiveness.
Four Leadership Systems System 1 characterized as exploitive and authoritative Managers make all work-related decisions and order their subordinates to carry them out. Failure to meet the managers' goals results in threats or punishments. Managers have little trust or confidence in subordinates.
Subordinates fear the managers.
System 2 benevolent authoritative Subordinates who meet or exceed the managers' goals may be rewarded. Managers have a condescending attitude toward their subordinates and subordinates are cautious when dealing with their managers.
System 3 consultative Managers set goals and issue general orders after discussing them with subordinates. Subordinates can make their own decisions about how to carry out their ttasks. Rewards are used to motivate subordinates.
Subordinates feel free to discuss most work-related matters with their managers, who, in turn, feel that to a large extent subordinates can be trusted to carry out their tasks properly.
System 4 participative Likert's final and most favored management style Goals are set and work-related decisions are made by group. To motivate subordinates, managers not only use economic rewards but also try to give their subordinates feelings of worth and importance Performance standards exist to permit self-appraisal by subordinates, rather than to provide managers with a tool to control subordinates. Interaction between managers and subordinates is frank, friendly, and trusting.
Low productivity → Systems 1 and 2 styles High productivity → Consultative or Participative leadership style System 4 management → desirable management in a wide variety of work situations
----------------------- High in consideration
Lowest turnover rates
Highest employee satisfaction
Low in consideration
High in initiating structture
High grievance and turnover rates