During this period, When the Saudi resident U. S military supported the Clinton’s administration policy of “Dual Containment”, 24 of them were killed and hundreds of them were injured the terrorist bombings taken place in Riyadh in 1995 and Dhahran in 1996. Also within this period, Saudi political activities like the fiscal policy, foreign policy and the constitutional government became prone to local debate.
And the Post war conditions of 1991 Gulf War made the citizens appeal the King Fahd for reformation. However Saudi’s charitable support for other Islamic nations like Kashmir, Afghanisthan, Bosnia, Chechnya, Kosovo, and Gaza etc. , complicated the policy related matters with U. S. peacemaking efforts in those regions and became factors to form transnational network of violent activists like Al Qaeda. Though the U. S. -Saudi relations were strong in the areas like defense cooperation, the political relations became week after the 9/11 terrorist attack. With September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on U. S, Saudi became vulnerable to much criticism for its negligence on the shared objectives on security in acting against terrorist groups, which is evident by the direct participation of 15 Saudi nationals in the attack.
The critics on such attempt of Saudi raised different concerns and opinions from the observers. Saudi government officials were criticized for their negligence and design of the responsibility in preventing the attack. According to some others, it is on Saudi policy decisions which facilitated the religious extremism and international terrorism as Zihad. The final report of 9/11 Commission released on July 23, 2004, criticized the fund raising activities involved with charities who are sponsored by the Saudi Government.
The 2003 attacks by the Al Qaeda again raised concerning the U. S. government about the security practices of Saudi. ? Economic Ties between Saudi –Arabia and U. S Saudi-U. S economic trade is based on Oil exports from Saudi and non –oil imports to Saudi. Saudi has 20 years of oil export history to U. S. The average Saudi oil supplies to the United States are around 1. 5 million barrels per day (mmb/d), where in the domestic supplies from Texas or Alaska are about 1. 2 or 1. 0 mmb/d. U. S has diversified Energy resource needs. Though the country is self sufficient for Coal, it has to depend on imports for natural gas and petroleum.
The consumption of Self produced petrol for United States was dropped from 69% to 25% during 1970 – 2005. This has obviously increased the dependency of foreign sources and the needs to ship oil to the United States from different regions of the world. Source taken from news. mongabay. com/2007/0430-climate. html Source taken from people. hofstra. edu/… /ch5en/appl5en/usoil. html During 1950 to 1973 U. S and Saudi experienced a happy grain-oil correlation. During this time the prices of oil and Wheat are stable just like the national relation between the two countries.
However, during the early 1970, even before OPEC hiked the oil prices, U. S has experienced a surplus for grain exports and could not pay the oil bills from Saudi. Also in 2003, the grain exports were reduced and U. S could only pay 11% of the oil import bill of $99 billion with the grain exports. The bilateral trade between U. S and Saudi was in its peak during 2000 and slightly decreased due to the new emergence of Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela as major oil suppliers to the United States. However, the balanced trade line and the commercial relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia is depicted in the following figure.