In a world where people are just trying to survive without any laws established and no concept of justice, fairness, equity, or injustice, I imagine that the environment would be clean, investigational, and deserted. I would assume that individuals would have to hunt and work for life's basic necessities because there has not been any economic development. There wouldn't be any convenient or grocery stores, so people would have to find a way to get a hold of food and water. It could mean by creating a strategy to capture and kill an animal as well as carrying out the task of preparing this meal.
Individuals would have to search for clean water and perhaps find a way to store it, in case of an emergency. The factories, cars, planes, boats, and trains that are present in our society today are all factors in pollution as they are continuously burning fossil fuels, whereas in a pre-civilization world where none of these factors are present, the air that these primitive people breathe would be a lot more clear, clean, and refreshing. I imagine that the setting would be an investigational one since nothing has been discovered yet. People are going to have to figure out what works and what doesn't.
It will be a trial and error process for anyone in this time period. For example, individuals will have to figure out strategies for hunting and determine which approach would be most effective but at the same time require the least effort. The tools they use will also be an important factor in how well they implement these strategies, as some tools will be more helpful than others. With no government and laws in society, there would be no such thing as private property. I expect that people would fear and withdraw from each other, which will consequently generate a hierarchy.
The reason why I feel that individuals would not get along is because even with laws in place today, people are still intimidated and threatened by each other. For example, if we take a glimpse of what takes place on our streetcars and subways today, we will see that everyone seems to be introverts. There are evidently out-going and talkative personalities amongst the population, but yet everyone taking public transportation chooses not to socialize with someone whom they've never met when sitting or standing right beside another.
These conditions in our society today demonstrates how people naturally act around other people they have never met. Judging from this environment, I would think that individuals in a pre-civilization world would act just as we do. They would be just as uncomfortable or may be afraid to offend the unknown, simply for the reason that people feel uneasy about confronting the unfamiliar. So, people will not, if they do not feel the need to do so. If one man is alone on a desert island, he has no use for any law. He can do as he pleases, with little regard for others, and without a complaint from anyone.
He is subject only to the reality of nature. If he doesn't eat, drink, sleep, and have sufficient shelter, he will experience starvation, unpleasant reactions, and possibly death. Besides that, everything else is entirely up to him. He can live his entire life without law, and without problems, but as soon as a second man appears on the island, they've both got problems. They will inevitably have arguments. One may be dominant; another submissive. They may get along as equals, but I don't think there's such thing as never having disagreements.
If they do get along, it will be because of mutual agreements. No matter what the case is, in the end they will either agree on rules of behavior. Both these men know that with only two people on this island, they need to implement a set of rules so they don't end up killing each other. I think that there are only two ways for people to avoid and/or settle disputes: violence and/or some sort of agreement. So the two men agree to rules of behaviour. This works out fine, as long as both men follow the rules, and as long as no one else arrives on the island.
Sooner or later, one of the men violates his agreement. When this happens, the one who broke the rules can voluntarily make amends and/or perhaps even accept a punishment, or the victim can voluntarily look the other way. The only alternative is fighting. The situation is further complicated when other people start arriving on the island. Some may agree to follow the same rules agreed to by the first two men. Some will make their own alliances, and their own agreements or contracts. Others may refuse to agree with anyone.
After awhile a few of the stronger men decide it's easier to steal than work and the weaker men with something to lose group together for strength, which will result in more contracts between people. The more hard-working individuals will decide to build a common wall around their homes and call it a city and decide that all the people living within this "city" have to agree to certain rules if they want the protection of the wall. Those who refuse to agree to these rules will be asked to leave, and those who stay will tolerate and follow the rules set by this city.
Other cities will be formed because those who did not want to comply with the set of rules put in place by the first city will construct and establish their own. Cities will promise other cities they will send men to aid in time of attack. Men who promised to fight to defend their own city are now compelled by their "contract" to this "city" to defend other cities, and people they don't even know. Alliances develop and some might break up. Countries are formed. We always say, "Canada did this," or "The United States did that. ", but countries are not human beings, they are groups of people who share many common contracts.
The purpose of these agreements which are made into legal contracts are to make sure that people can live together without chaos and to prevent anyone from killing each other. It ensures a safe and peaceful society in which individuals' rights are respected. Laws regulating our business relationships help to ensure that people keep their promises. Laws against criminal conduct help to protect our personal property and our lives. Even in a disciplined society, people have disagreements and conflicts arise. The law must provide a way to resolve these disputes peacefully.
For example, if two people claim to own the same piece of property, we do not want the matter settled by a fighting each other, therefore we turn to the law and to institutions like the courts to decide who is the real owner and to make sure that the real owner's rights are respected. Another purpose to law would be to provide fairness, which that the law should recognize and protect certain basic individual rights and freedoms, such as liberty and equality. This means that no longer are the stronger groups and individuals able to use their powerful positions in society to take advantage of weaker individuals.