Educational institution is a term used to describe institutions dedicated to education. It covers early educational institutions such as kindergarten and elementary school, going all the way to the higher education offered in colleges and universities. A high school is also an educational institution. Educational institutions can be divided into categories based on the age of their students. Early childhood education is us usually intended for kids younger than 7. This includes kindergarten and other forms of preschool institutions.
Primary education includes the primary school or elementary school, as well as a middle school or, in some countries, gymnasium. Secondary education includes high school. Higher education includes undergraduate, master and doctoral studies in a university. Another commonly used term is Eligible Educational Institution. According to the IRS “an eligible educational institution is any college, university, vocational school, or other postsecondary educational institution eligible to participate in a student aid program administered by the U. S. Department of Education.
It includes virtually all accredited public, nonprofit, and proprietary (privately owned profit-making) postsecondary institutions. The educational institution should be able to tell you if it is an eligible educational institution. ” Student aid programs can come in many shapes. For instance an individual that pays a fee or tuition for higher education can apply for a tax deduction. Scholarships are probably the most common form of student aid.
Scholarships can come from many sources, including government structures, educational institutions, or private associations. Education in Pakistan: Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government’s Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research. The article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years.
“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”. The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees Industry:
Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy. Industry is often classified into three sectors: primary or extractive, secondary or manufacturing and tertiary or services. Some authors add quaternary (knowledge) or even fix (culture and research) sectors. Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership and time. Raw Materials Industries may be agriculture based, Marine based, Mineral based, Forest based. Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production.
Ownership: Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and co-operative sector. Industry in the sense of manufacturing became a key sector of production and labor in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, which upset previous mercantile and feudal economies through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the steel and coal production. It is aided by technological advances, and has continued to develop into new types and sectors to this day.
Industrial countries then assumed a capitalist economic policy. Railroads and steam-powered ships began speedily establishing links with previously unreachable world markets, enabling private companies to develop to then-unheard of size and wealth. Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the world’s economic output is derived from manufacturing industries—more than agriculture’s share. Industry in Pakistan: Pakistan ranks forty-first in the world and fifty-fifth worldwide in factory output. Pakistan’s industrial sector accounts for about 24% of GDP.
Cotton textile production and apparel manufacturing are Pakistan’s largest industries, accounting for about 66% of the merchandise exports and almost 40% of the employed labor force. Cotton and cotton-based products account for 61% of export earnings of Pakistan. The consumption of cotton increased by 5. 7% over the past five years while the economic growth rate was 7%. By 2010 the spinning capacity increased to 15 million spindles and textile exports hit 15. 5$ billion. Other major industries include cement, fertilizer, edible oil, sugar, steel, tobacco, chemicals, machinery and food processing.
The government is privatizing large-scale par units, and the public sector accounts for a shrinking proportion of industrial output, while growth in overall industrial output (including the private sector) has accelerated. Government policies aim to diversify the country’s industrial base and bolster export industries. Gaps: The problem of developing, at the university level, an approach that is not only responsive to regional problems, but also keeps abreast of changes in technology, is discussed. It is stressed that successful development of industry depends on the availability of a competent engineering workforce.
The relationship between industry and universities in Africa is examined in the context of meeting both of these needs. For last many years our education system has been under a critical hammer for not delivering the professionals with right attitude and right skills. Currently Following is the lead time for the fresh graduates to become professionals. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Law – 5 years Medicine – 3 years Engineer – 3 years Management – 2-5 years Architecture – 5 years Chartered accountant –5-7years As far as management education is concerned, the basic reason for the situation is deficit in following areas of education. a. b. c. d.
Selection of the right candidate Standardization of syllabus Education process Internship or exposure of the live industrial world. Management science is not a rocket science. It is basically a science to create managers and leaders to supervise and ensure quality in all departments of an organization. The theoretical aspects of the basic management science are not very long or complicated. The development of leadership skills, attitude and values is equally important. It is a common experience in most of the management colleges that candidates scoring excellent ranks in the examinations get selected last on campus interviews.
The most successful managers in industrial world usually don’t have the brightest academic credentials. These facts should lead to serious pondering over the status and mode of education. We also need to have a look at the syllabus and pedagogy. We must have a permanent built in system of updating syllabus. We certainly should be on the lookout for the latest systems being practiced by the industry. Our students are future managers. The major aims have been to provide academics with professional development in teaching such skills, and to deliver courses to students to give them an idea of the potential and the difficulties of teamwork.
A series of (mostly) outdoor problem-solving activities is used, with a specific focus on understanding the benefits of working with others, reflecting upon how each task has been performed, and learning about the theoretical principles of teamwork and team review. A growing body of literature suggests that variations across countries, in entrepreneurial activity and the active structure of economies could potentially be the source of different efficiencies in knowledge spillovers, and ultimately in economic growth.
These context lead to the need and desire for designing programs for children and young adults to make the best of time-out-of-school (and in-school), for contributing positively towards a productive and conscientious adulthood. Too few of today’s job-seekers know about the high-paying career opportunities available in the manufacturing sector. Even fewer have the skills, training or experience required for success in this changing industry. Compounding the talent shortage is manufacturing’s image. “Although it is vital to our economy, manufacturing has not had a positive image.
Despite actively striving to change this perception among high school students, career counselors and parents, overcoming this perception remains a challenge. The persistently high number of open jobs indicates that there is a shortage of workers with the necessary education, skills and training needed to meet the demands of the manufacturing workforce. This skills gap has become a pressing issue for industrial companies, many of which rely on complex, high-tech production processes. Manufacturers are working hard simply to find enough employees to replace retiring workers, much less bring new hires on board to support company expansion.
Closing the gaps: The post-secondary education has improved chances of finding a job; almost 40 percent of employers say a lack of skills is the main reason for entry-level vacancies. The research examines the differing perceptions of employers, education providers and the young. And tries to establish how to, in the words of the report, design a system that works. Underlying the report is the assumption that the post-secondary education sector exists to support employment and is able to. We should also expect the educational system to provide skills and knowledge in areas that change slowly.
Linguists, doctors and structural engineers all work in fields that require a solid foundation of knowledge and skills which should be provided through a substantial process of formal education. We should demand from our education system, which sadly it does not always provide, is a generation of bright, creative graduates capable of critical thinking and problem solving. Post-secondary education relies on curriculums put together over a course of months and years and delivered over a course of years. That simply won’t cut it for employers or for the young.
There are signs though that the more enlightened higher-education establishments and people seeking skills are looking for new ways to engage with each other which can only be to the benefit of the third party employers. This is the beginning of a shift in educational provision which will rapidly change the way we look at formal learning, higher education, and skills for employability. More than 30% of the workforce is trained at higher education level. Yet there is a shortage of qualified staff in some industries. There is a need for more science graduates, for instance.
He government wants better education for students to prepare them for the labor market. It is planning radical changes for higher education (higher vocational colleges and universities). Studies will be more tightly regulated, with a greater selection of students and education geared towards the needs of industry. Changes will also be made in professional training. Professional training institutes, the government and scientists are drawing up qualification documents that specify for each profession the skills the graduates must have. The curriculum and exams must be geared towards the demands of the industry.
Businesses also play a role in improving education. For instance by offering work placements and student grants. Businesses and knowledge institutions that operate in the top sectors are invited to list deficiencies and consider exchange programmed between schools and businesses or ways to adjust education to the needs of industry. They have also been invited to draw up a master plan to attract more students to science. Much complained about is the quality of graduates Universities put on the labor market. Less talked about however is why knowledge institutions seem to be bad knowledge managers. Education Institutions is a per-requisite.
Good relationship is key to building such a successful knowledge transfer strategies between Industries and Educational and Research Institutions. Bridging the gap: Employers today, as a result, operate in an environment that demands new and constantly developing skills to retain global competitiveness. There is a need for effective intervention to understand employer needs, variable sector specific skills, training requirements that improve business performance, articulation of business expectations in education institutions and engagement of industry leaders with higher education institutions.
Academia Convergence endeavors to bring together higher education institutions and employers to involve modalities for collaboration with the aim to meet India’s medium and long – term skills and business needs. During the last two decades, there has been an increasing awareness about the role and responsibility of education, and with it, a growing concern in many Countries about the manner in which educational systems were organized and administered. The beginning of this concern was, perhaps, the transformation of education from an elitist pursuit to a mass activity.
With elementary and secondary education becoming universal in most developed countries, higher education also got transformed into a mass education initiative. There has been a rapid expansion in higher education, with student enrollment growing at about 5 percent annually over the past two decades. This growth is about two and a half times the population growth rate, and results from both a population bulge in lower age cohorts as well as increased demand for higher education. It is this transformation of higher education into a mass education system that inevitably raised questions about the ways in which it was being organized and managed.