Background and History: Pakistan recognized china on 4 January, 1950. Pakistan and china bilateral relations are more powerful rather than others bilateral relations to other countries. China has always provided political, economic, diplomatic and support to Pakistan. Pakistan china diplomatic relations started in 21 May 1951. Whenever Pakistan suffered in natural disaster like earth quack and flood time China helped us a lot.
The first Chinese ambassador came to Pakistan in September 1951 and Pakistani first ambassador went to china in Peking on November1, 1951. The first time Pakistani ambassador Major General Raza stressed and wished to develop the cordial relation with republic china. The further relations started between Pakistan and china at the Bandung Conference, a forum hosted by Indonesian President Sukarno in the Javanese city of Bandung in April 1955.
This conference was give to strengthen the role of Afro-Asian nations against the imperialism. “On 15 June1956 premier Chou Eli remarked about the historic links between the people of Pakistan and China reaffirmed for friendly political ties with Pakistan. Pakistan adopted ‘One China Policy’ and strictly adapted to it. It served as s a reminder during the Cold War when Pakistan chose a separate path from its Western allies in articulating its policy towards China. The Karakaram highway was started jointly by both countries for trade purpose. That highway was completed in 20 years with the collaboration by both countries engineers.
Now, that highway provided both countries motor able link for trade. That highway also gave the china access to Arabian Sea port of Karachi. Pak-china foreign policy gave the more strength to assign Sino-Pakistan Frontier Agreement 1963. These are labeled as an ‘all weather friendship, “deeper than the oceans` and ‘higher than the Himalayas”.
The cornerstone of Pakistan foreign policy is Chinese friendship as Pakistan views this marvelous relationship beneficial not only in time of peace for progress and development but also in crises and conflicting situations to tackle them. China is the largest trade partner at bilateral level and regional level second largest partner in South Asia while India is the first. The people of Pakistan draw strength and feel satisfaction with relation of Chinese nation, which are not less than a miracle of modern era.
Pakistan China Contemporary Policy: China helped the Pakistani Government a lot underground in 1965 war. China first time sent tranche of weapons in 1965 war. During the war china support was reliable and hopeful for Pakistani government. In 1997 Pakistan improved more relation with china and Pakistan got 1650 tanks, 269 aircrafts, 3 warship and 10 patrol craft. In Wah Industrial production factory 70% designs of the aircraft and other war tools are designing by Chinese. The relation has been gone at peek due to the marvelous foreign policy by both countries. In 2002 Pakistan china trade stood at US$2 billion and now it grew to US$6.8 billion which shows the strength of both country relations. Pakistan and china has also made the JF-17 fighter aircraft jointly.
During the Mushraf era in 2000 to 2005 Pakistan and china started 21 agreements which were covering nuclear energy, defense cooperation, technology sharing for warship, aircrafts and tanks. China also invested a huge investment at Gwadar. (Schofield U. B., 2012) Pakistan and china has signed free trade agreement. China is also helping Pakistan in energy crises. Joint military exercise has been started between both countries. Pakistan Army has reached China to participate in third joint military training exercise, YOUYI - III (Friendship).
That kind of exercise has been designed to benefit from the professional skills employed by the two Special Forces Group at sub unit level. Those kinds of exercises are also creating the harmony and brotherhood between the both countries soldiers. The aim of the exercise is to practice counter terrorism mechanisms along with drills in mountains. Non-Proliferation and China Strategic Assistance to Pakistan: The china always supported Pakistan on Kashmir issue. China stood for the settlement of Kashmir issue in may 1957. Choun Eli made clear that “an imperialist design” and supported the self determination of Jammu and Kashmir.
Chinese people follower and have the ideology of communism which was completely against the west countries. At that time Taiwan was represented the china in united nation. During that era Pakistan was playing a pivotal role and acting as a bridge between USA and China relations. China foreign policy priority was to stable strategic environment of economic growth of Pakistan. Chinese support Pakistan nuclear program. China is the only country that has been persistently helping Pakistan in the nuclear domain of power generation.
China-Pakistan nuclear cooperation agreement signed in 1986; it is the agreement that forms the close relationship of nuclear technology transfer between China and Pakistan. 8China and Pakistan have never officially made this agreement public and disclose the specific transfer content of the nuclear technology. Western scholars draw the conclusion that China helped Pakistan develop nuclear weapons during this period mainly based on the information from those intelligence agencies of the United States as well as the western media reports, which might be suspected and exaggerated. China realizes the importance of Pakistan in the region.
They well aware the role of Pakistan in Afghanistan and they think without help of Pakistan we cannot bring peace in Afghanistan. China acceded to the (NPT) in 1992 after France. General Tariq Majid, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee termed Pakistan defense relations with China as excellent and unparalleled. He also mentioned the excellent relations existed between the PLA (People’s of Liberation Army) and Pakistan army.
The reception was largely attended by the senior Pakistani military officials and Defense Attaches of various countries. (Haq, 2011). IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) pointed towards Pakistan for proliferating WMDs and no Muslim country supported us. It does mean that we should not delink ourselves from OIC but we should first seek our own national interest than we should look towards Umah. It is further alleged that Pakistan’s nuclearization has contributed to international terrorism. The US expressed serious concern regarding the authenticity of the control and command system and Pakistan’s ability to protect its nuclear assets. (Akbar, Feb.2011) Pakistani Counter Terror Operation:
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao stepped in the Parliament House along with Speaker National Assembly Dr Fehmida Mirza and Senate Chairman Farooq H Naek, he was accorded a warm welcome by the parliamentarians, who stood up and the house echoed with loud thumping of desks to show affection and love of the people of Pakistan through their representatives for the Chinese people and prime minister. Take some pivotal step against Eastern Turkestan Islamic Moment (ETIM). Infect that Islamic moment is work in Turkestan and that moment also has some activist in Afghanistan. Pakistan started counter terror operation in swat, Dir, wazirstan against warrior groups Tehrek-e-Taliban Pakistan, Al-Qaida, Hizb-ul Mujhideen etc.
China wants to continue the militant operation against terrorist groups. The reason is that china wants Pakistan as stable, peaceful and prosperous country because china knows the value and strategic location of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Infect china does not want NATO forces in Afghanistan because china thinks that forces infect kept the eye view on china. china’s ambassador to pakistan , Liu Jian said that growing cooperation in counter-terrorism initiatives was essential. He also said that “china will always stand by Pakistan”. (The Express Tribune,April 18, 2013).
Conclusion: These internal foreign policy challenges need to be addressed by the policy makers of Pakistan. These all issues, challenges and threats can tear the fabric of our society if not considered seriously. Although any past government whether democratic or dictatorial could not ignore these issues and challenges at all due to public pressure but a clear cut line has also never been drawn in formulating the foreign policy on these critical issues. The shift in Pakistan’s foreign policy after September 11, has provoked an intense debate both at home and abroad. For Pakistan, joining the U.S led anti terrorist coalition reflected the major policy shift by withdrawing support from the Taliban government which has seen Pakistan as one of its leading allies.
Pakistan shifted her policy and took U turn to preserve its strategic assets and national sovereignty. America is seeking important role of Pakistan’s chief external supporter due to war on terrorism. This is an opportunity to correct old mistakes. Pakistan should give the message to the terrorist groups without stopping the military operation in sawat, dir and wazirstan. If the military operation start with that spirit and enthusiasm then one day will come when in these areas the writ of government will not be challenged and areas people will live in peace and prosperous life. Pakistani government can decline the influence to give the jobs and develop the industry in this specific area.
If the Pakistan foreign policy maker taken the decisions in isolation without considering and honoring the sentiments of Pakistani society, it will not only inflame public opinion but also create internal security problems. These problems can affect the nine years effort of coalition partners in Afghanistan.
The fact of the matter is that without Pakistan assistance U.S will be not able to haunt the Al-Qaeda and Taliban elements. So it is the time to reconsider, reschedule and re-frame the foreign policy of Pakistan in the context of internal needs and challenges. BibliographySchofield, U. B. (2012). Pakistan The US, Geopolitics and Grand Strategies. London: Pluto Press. Haq, D. N. (2011, July 31). SIXTY YEARS OF PAK-CHINA DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS. Retrieved April 24, 2013, from http://www.ipripak.org: http://www.ipripak.org/factfiles/ff136.pdf Akbar, M. (Feb.2011). Internal Challenges in New Millennium. Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences , 10.