Cultural Diversity in Criminal Justice

This course offers a comprehensive, critical and balanced examination of the issues of crime and justice with respect to ethnicity. Procedures and policy in a pluralistic and multicultural society are examined relative to law enforcement, courts and corrections environments. Policies Faculty and students will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: •University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. •Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum.

University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials The Criminology and Criminal Justice Collective of Northern Arizona University. (2009). Investigating difference: Human and cultural relations in criminal justice (2nd ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. McNamara, R. , & Burns, R. (2009).

Multiculturalism in the criminal justice system. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. All electronic materials are available on the student website. Whenever there is a question about the assignments, remember that this syllabus is considered the ruling document. Week One: Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime Victims and Offenders DetailsDuePoints Objectives1. 1Describe how the historical development of policing relates to current concerns regarding multiculturalism. 1. 2Interpret victimization, offender rates, and statistical data for different ethnic groups. 1.

3Describe the history of gangs and their influence on youth. 1. 4Describe the occurrence of hate crimes on people of various ethnicities, socioeconomic statuses, and sexual orientations. 1. 5Explain the relationship between police and people of various ethnicities, socioeconomic statuses, and sexual orientations. 1. 6Explain the factors related to ethnicity and socioeconomic statuses that lead to disparity in the criminal justice system. ReadingRead the Week One Read Me First. ReadingRead Ch. 1 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch.

2 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch. 8 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch. 3 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead Ch. 5 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead Ch. 7 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead Ch. 14 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. ParticipationParticipate in class discussion. 1/6/141 Discussion QuestionsRespond to weekly discussion questions. 1/6/143 Learning Team Instructions Panel Discussion Presentation (Preparation).

Choose a topic from the following options concerning the dynamics of race, the police, and the community for your panel discussion: •Racial profiling by police •Influence of police leadership on racial disparity and discrimination •Effect of police brutality on ethnic minority victims, family, and community •Response of government officials to racial and ethnic issues Consider using Opposing Viewpoints in Context as a source for your articles, which is located in University Library under Specialized Resources. Use the Quick Search function to locate articles on your selected topic.

Review three to five articles pertaining to your topic. Begin working on your Panel Discussion Presentation, due in Week Two. Individual Police Influence on SocietyWrite a 700- to 1,050-word paper that describes how the historical development of policing in the United States relates to the current relationship between police and different ethnic groups and social classes. Support your discussion with examples from law enforcement practices, court procedures, corrections populations, or all three. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. 1/6/1410 Week Two: Ethnicity and the Police DetailsDuePoints.

Objectives2. 1Analyze public opinion about the police. 2. 2Identify contemporary concerns relative to policing particular ethnic communities. 2. 3Examine how police practices affect police–community relations. 2. 4Explain officer attitudes, police corruption, and citizen complaints relative to ethnicity. ReadingRead the Week Two Read Me First. ReadingRead Ch. 3 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch. 10 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingReview Ch. 2 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings.

ParticipationParticipate in class discussion and discussion questions1/13/144 Nongraded Activities and Preparation Gangs and Law EnforcementResource: “The End of the Line: California Gangs and the Promise of Street Peace” article located in this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings Read the article and be prepared to discuss the history of California gangs, the relationship with current gang warfare, and law enforcement’s role in gang suppression. Individual Ethnicity and the Police Part I: Outline Resource: University of Phoenix Material: Ethnicity and the Police located on the student website.

Choose one of the following topics: •Race and contemporary concerns relative to policing particular ethnic communities •Public opinion of police by different ethnic groups •Police practices and police community relations •Police corruption and citizen complaints relative to ethnicity Form an opinion on the selected topic. Locate and identify at least three references from peer-reviewed journals to support your opinion. Prepare an outline of your newspaper article, speech, or podcast due in Week Four that examines your selected topic. Include at least one contemporary event as an example to illustrate the main points.

Format your outline and references consistent with APA guidelines. Submit your outline and list of references. 1/13/1410 Learning Team Panel Discussion Presentation Choose one team member who will serve as a moderator. The remaining team members will serve as panelists. •The moderator summarizes the key points of the articles selected by the team in Week One and comes up with at least five questions to ask about the articles. •The panelists will answer the moderator’s questions. Each question asked must be answered by every panelist to ensure a wide variety of opinions.

•Then, the moderator should facilitate a brief discussion related to the team members’ responses to the questions. Submit a reflection summary of the team discussion. Choose to write a 350- to 700-word paper or to create a 5- to 7-slide Microsoft® Power Point® presentation with speaker notes. Include the following in your paper or presentation: •Who played what role •A brief summary of the articles •A list of the questions asked by the moderator •A brief summary of the panel discussion and your reactions to the articles1/13/1410 Week Three: Ethnicity and the Courts.

DetailsDuePoints Objectives3. 1Summarize the effect of ethnicity on courtroom proceedings. 3. 2Identify disparity and discrimination issues in courtroom proceedings. 3. 3Explain the need for diversity among courtroom personnel and whether ethnicity influences judicial practices. 3. 4Evaluate the efficacy of jury nullification when premised on ethnic considerations. ReadingsRead the Week Three Read Me First. ReadingRead Ch. 11 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch. 18 of Investigating Difference. ReadingReview Ch. 3 of Investigating Difference.

ReadingRead this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. ParticipationParticipate in class discussion and discussion questions1/20/144 Learning Team Instructions Ethnicity and Corrections (Preparation) Begin working on the Ethnicity and Corrections assignment, due in Week Four. Individual Jury Nullification PaperWrite a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address the following: •Explain whether ethnicity influences courtroom proceedings and judicial practices. •Summarize the arguments for and against ethnicity-based jury nullification. •Include contemporary examples of ethnicity-based jury nullification.

•Conclude by choosing a position for or against ethnicity-based jury nullification and defend your decision. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. 1/20/1410 Week Four: Ethnicity and Corrections DetailsDuePoints Objectives4. 1Describe the issue of ethnic disparity and discrimination within corrections. 4. 2Identify the significance of cultural diversity as it relates to correctional facilities. 4. 3Explain ethnic disparity issues as they relate to the juvenile justice system. 4. 4Analyze the prevalence of wrongful convictions in the United States. ReadingRead the Week Four Read Me First.

ReadingRead Ch. 12 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingRead Ch. 19 of Investigating Difference. ReadingReview Ch. 14 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. ParticipationParticipate in class discussion and discussion questions1/27/144 Learning Team Instructions Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issues (Preparation) Begin working on the Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issues assignment, due in Week Five. Individual Ethnicity and the Police Part II: Final DeliverableFor this assignment, you will choose from the following options:

•Option 1: Newspaper Article •Option 2: Speech •Option 3: Podcast Read the instructions in the University of Phoenix Material: Ethnicity and the Police on the student website and select one option to complete the assignment. 1/27/1410 Learning Team Ethnicity and CorrectionsResearch one of the following ethnicity and corrections case studies: •The Stanford Prison Experiment •California’s race-based lockdowns •Attica Prison riot •Farmer v. Brennan, et al. Present the significance of cultural diversity as it relates to correctional facilities using your selected case as an example.

Summarize ethnic disparity and discrimination within corrections. Create a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation of your findings. Include detailed speaker notes Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines. 1/27/1410 Week Five: Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issues in Criminal Justice DetailsDuePoints Objectives5. 1Assess whether the criminal justice system discriminates against any group. 5. 2Identify contemporary issues related to disparity and discrimination in the criminal justice system. 5. 3Assess the criminal justice system’s response to the public’s perception of ethnic and gender bias.

ReadingRead the Week Five Read Me First. ReadingRead Ch. 20 of Investigating Difference. ReadingReview Ch. 3 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingReview Ch. 11 of Multiculturalism in the Criminal Justice System. ReadingReview Ch. 18 of Investigating Difference. ReadingRead this week’s Electronic Reserve Readings. ParticipationParticipate in class discussion. 2/3/144 Individual Cultural Diversity TrainingSearch the Internet for an example from the past 2 years of a contemporary cultural diversity issue in criminal justice.

Create a short training for criminal-justice-system employees that will improve the relationship between the criminal justice system and the community, based on the example you selected. Create a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation of your proposed training. Include detailed speaker notes Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines. 2/3/1410 Learning Team Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issues PresentationCreate a 10- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation based on the two following topics:

•The criminal justice system’s response to the public’s perception of ethnic and gender bias •The arguments for and against the contention that the criminal justice system discriminates against racial and ethnic minority groups Address the following in your presentation: •The criminal justice system’s response to the public’s perception of ethnic and gender bias •Whether the criminal justice system discriminates against any group •A contemporary issue or event related to each of the two topics to support your arguments Include detailed speaker notes.

Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines. 2/3/1410 Optional Discussion Questions Week One Discussion Questions •What is the difference between disparity and discrimination? Provide an example of ethnicity, race, or socioeconomic status that lead to disparity. •What racial group is overrepresented as offenders for most violent and property crimes? What are the possible explanations for such disparity? Is this picture of the offender the result of differential offending rates or differential enforcement practices? Provide examples. •Should hate be considered a crime?

What arguments support the use of sentencing-enhancement penalties for hate crimes? What arguments oppose such statutes? Are hate crime laws likely to deter offenders and reduce crime? •If most youth gangs are racially and ethnically homogenous, should law enforcement use race- and ethnic-specific strategies to fight gang formation and to control gang crime? Or, should law enforcement strategies be racially and ethnically neutral? What dilemmas are created for police departments that pursue each of these strategies? •What is the concept of visibility, and what is its relationship to ethnicity?

•What is the effect of the civil rights movement on crime and criminal justice? •Some studies reveal that African American, Hispanic, and Native American youth are treated more harshly than Caucasian youth at several stages of the juvenile justice process, even after the seriousness of the offense and the offender’s prior juvenile record are taken into consideration; however, these studies do not disclose the reasons for these disparities. How would you explain these differences? How do researchers account for them? Week Two Discussion Questions •What effect does race have on citizens’ attitudes toward the police?

•When does the use of force by police become excessive or unjustified? Include your own definition of excessive force. •Do you think the events of September 11, 2001, changed the public’s perception of police? Explain how and why. •What are some contemporary concerns related to policing in communities with racial and ethnic minorities? What evidence supports these concerns? Provide examples. •What are a few reasons why some communities share a mutual distrust with police? •How are use-of-force policies related to ethnic communities and their perception of police? Week Three Discussion Questions.

•Are racial minorities who are represented by public defenders or assigned counsel treated more harshly than those represented by private attorneys? If you were an African American, Hispanic, or Native American defendant and could choose whether to be represented by a public defender or a private attorney, which would you choose? Explain why. •Racial minorities comprise a very small proportion of the lawyers and judges in the United States. What accounts for this? What difference, if any, would it make if more of the lawyers representing criminal defendants were from racial minority groups?

•Assume that racial minorities are more likely than Caucasians to be detained prior to trial. Why is this concerning? What are the consequences of pretrial detention? How might the bail system be reformed to reduce this disparity? •Evidence suggesting that prosecutors use peremptory challenges to preserve all-Caucasian juries in cases involving African American or Hispanic defendants has led some commentators to call for the elimination of the peremptory challenge. What are the strongest arguments in favor of eliminating the peremptory challenge? What are the strongest arguments in favor of retaining the peremptory challenge?

•Research reveals that young, unemployed African American and Hispanic males have a higher punishment penalty than offenders of other races. What accounts for this? Support your argument with examples. •How does race-based jury nullification damage race relations? •Discuss the steps in courtroom proceedings. Which steps have the most adverse effects on minorities? Explain your answer. Week Four Discussion Questions •Why is cultural diversity important among staff in a correctional facility? •What are some explanations for the overrepresentation in arrests and incarceration of people from ethnic or racial minority groups?

Do you agree or disagree with these explanations? •Explain some of the known causes of wrongful convictions. What are some possible remedies? •When do you think it is justifiable to sentence a juvenile as an adult? Explain your answer. Week Five Discussion Questions •Does the criminal justice system discriminate against racial minorities? Explain your response. •Do you think the criminal justice system is discriminatory against African Americans, or is it individual people within the system who discriminate against them? Explain your response. •What are some contemporary examples of cultural diversity issues in the criminal justice system?

Describe them and explain their significance. Copyright University of Phoenix® is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft®, Windows®, and Windows NT® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix® editorial standards and practices.