Criminal Justice and Writing

Juvenile delinquency is a dynamic, multifaceted problem that has a significant impact on all members and processes in a social structure. Delinquency describes behaviors that deviate from the collective ethics practices and norms of a society. Political and social factors such as child abuse and neglect have been linked to juvenile delinquency. Further children growing up in single parents’ homes are more likely to be involved in delinquency.

Economic situations have a relationship with future juvenile delinquency, often those children who come from families of lower socio-economic status are more likely to engage in juvenile delinquency; where there are limited resources, the ability of the parents control and supervise children is limited making behavioral problems more common(Siegel and Welsh, 2004). Delinquency rate and patterns are racially distinct; African Americans are arrested for rapes, robberies murder and assault while White youths are mainly arrested for arson.

Racial Racism in institutions and a high prevalence of minority youth are factors that contribute to the higher delinquency rates among black youth (Siegel and Welsh, 2004). The statutory age limit is seventeen or eighteen years for most states (Siegel and Welsh, 2004). Using severe penalties may not be effective in deterring youths form crime since at the time of adolescence most youth have a higher propensity for risk and generally seem to underestimate consequences of the actions, severe penalties would therefore may be serve as deferent for the short term rates than long term

Heredity versus Environment Juvenile delinquency is influenced more by the environment than hereditary factors. The main factors that cause youth to have behavioral problems are mainly environmental in nature. They include family problems, poverty and the neighborhood that a teenager grows up in as well as peer influence. Gang involvement only occurs in certain neighborhoods and not others. Most juvenile delinquency occurs in urban centers. The effect of media is also related to environment and can be said to be an environmental factor.

Most youth growing up exposed to rap music, movies and generally entertainment that glorify violence, promiscuity and drug abuse have a higher likelihood of indulging in such behavior compared to those who do not have such exposure. Most youth are generally involved in delinquency not because it is in their genes to do so but because environmental influences have contributed greatly to this low socio-economic class and poverty in most urban areas has led to the formation of gangs which provide the youth with something to do and also to increase their economic power.

Often, children who are labeled as mischievous naughty or ill-behaved end up living up to these labels. Acting out is usually a way of seeking attention and when they notice that bad behavior gets them noticed they are likely to continue this paving the way for delinquency in future. The better thing to rather than labeling a child is to seek out the underlying cause of their behavior. Fraud Investigation Fraud investigation requires several types of evidence so that the case can be proved. Fraud is considered a crime, and in all criminal proceedings, evidence ought to be first hand for example what a witness saw, heard or sensed.

This information should be provided based on the witnesses own knowledge (Davia and Silverstone, 2005). Among the types of evidence admissible in fraud cases are oral evidence, documentary evidence, real evidence and expert evidence (Corner, 1998). Oral evidence refers to the things said by a suspect when he or she was interviewed. This evidence is presented in court when a witness who has taken oath from the witness box gives first hand knowledge of the issues. This is collected by the investigator in the form of statements and affidavits.

Oral evidence can be collected through interviews but during its collection it is necessary that the investigator does not force a confession out of the suspect, since a confession under duress is not acceptable in court. Tape recording and taking notes is also another means of collecting oral evidence. Laws vary within different states and should be checked to ensure the evidence is admissible in court (Corner, 1998). Documentary evidence may be in the form of false purchase invoices which may be produced by the witness as part of the oral evidence. These are collected by the investigator as original and schedules prepared by the witnesses.

Photocopies of original exhibits may also be produced for example photocopies of invoices. These are also produced as part of oral evidence and are only acceptable in a court when the court is satisfied that the originals cannot be availed. These photocopies are also collected by the investigator as copies schedules and extracts that the witness prepares (Corner, 1998). Other documentary evidences include records such as copies of overseas bank accounts. These may be produced by a witness from the bank or the investigator. These are presented as certified schedules and copies.

The investigator can collect such information on the perfect that he or she is a government official or they may pretend to be the suspect. This however, places the investigator at risk of criminal prosecution for using deception to gain pecuniary advantage (Corner, 1998). Real evidence refers to the actual stole goods and usually produced as part of the oral evidence. The goods may be produced in court or may be shown in photographs. Real evidence can be collected by the investigator when he intercepts the suspect on his or her way to make delivery of the stolen goods.

This is achievable through surveillance, refuse searches, office and desk searches. The searches should have to be compliant with the law and any actions should have the approval of a litigation lawyer (Corner, 1998) Expert evidence refers to oral evidence given by an expert in a field. The expert is usually under oath to give his opinion about certain or all facts of an issue. Expert evidence is an exception to the hearsay rule. An example of expert evidence is an opinion given by computer technician. This form of evidence is usually collected as proof of evidence or in the form of a statement (Corner, 1998).

Expert opinions are important for validation evidence that is already present. Computerized evidence is another form of evidence which could be in the form of printouts, tapes, and disks. It is often produced as part of the oral evidence a witness gives and is collected by the investigator as proof of evidence. The witness should be in a position to show that the exhibit was produced in the normal course of business and that this was done on a computer whose reliability is proven (Corner, 1998). An employee who suspects fraud within an organization is bound by legal and ethical duty to report his suspicions to the right manager.

Failure to report his or her suspicions will cause the employee to be suspected to have been in league with the fraudsters. Proof of guilty knowledge may cause the employee to be seen to have had criminal intent even when the employee had no such intent (Davia and Silverstone, 2005). Living in a poor urban neighborhood contributes greatly to high rates of delinquency. Poverty means that the resources for a parent to monitor and provide alternative activities for his or her child are lacking. In addition, poverty also means that education levels within the neighborhood may be very low leading to unemployment due to lack of skills.

This situation makes crime an option that would b pursued by many youth as they have a lot of energy but inadequate helpful activities to occupy them. In addition, they may be too broke to afford even necessary essential s meaning that the alternative to get them is crime especially since proper guidance may be lacking. Poverty is not merely an excuse for delinquency rather it is responsible for a cycle of events that puts the poor young urban youth to at a disadvantage and at a higher risk for criminal activity.

Juvenile delinquency however, cannot totally be explained away by poverty, choice also has a role to play albeit a very small role. Often urban youth in poor neighborhoods find themselves institutions where they feel that t even though they choose proper conduct they will have lost because they end up lacking something else that they needed or they simply remain poor. In addition, most of the urban youth are not adequately empowered to make the right choices, bringing back the issue of poverty.

Programs addressing economic development education and youth development are same of the programs that could break the cycle of urban poverty in the community. Youth development and education would address the issue of the youth, help to restore their self esteem and belief in their ability to change circumstance, making ten able to make better choices while economic development would help to ease the burden of poverty. Decreasing poverty rate will definitely decrease delinquency rate as it will avail opportunities for youth to be involved in various activities other than crime.

Their parents will also be able to monitor their activities due to increased economic power. Increased economic power generally provides one with more choices and it usually comes with enough education to choose the right things and is so doing to avoid delinquency. References Siegel LG and Welsh BC, 2004 Juvenile Delinquency: The Core (Second Edition), Thomson/Wadsworth, ISBN: 0-534-62982-2 Corner MJ, 1998, Corporate Fraud, Gower Publishing, ISBN 0566078104 Davia HR and Silverstone H, 2005, Fraud 101: Techniques and Strategies for Detection, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 047172713X