There are currently 71 organizations for crime and justice in United States which are mostly under the head of ‘non-profit organization’.
To name a few, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS), Centre on Crime, Communities and Culture (CCCC), Crime Prevention, Coalition of America, Criminal Justice Policy Foundation (CJPF), Institute for Global Communication (IGC), National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC), National Criminal Justice Association (NCJA), Rule of Law Foundation and Society of Police Futurists International, which exclusively work for fore-casting future crime and its prevention with the use of technology in crime fighting. Introduction
Crime, terror and injustice have become part and parcel of current affairs as never before. Common man all over the world is confronted with great dangers, insecurity and violence resulting in injustice causing heavy disruption not only to self, which is even spreading to the vicinity. Telelvision channels, news papers and internet are flooded almost daily with some horrifying news which is mind boggling and blowing to the civilians and threatening the governments security. Crime is prevalent in every corner of globe and no place carries perfect peace in the present day environment.
For instance, crime rating in various countries is as follows: Crime is at the highest when caused with loss of lives of civilians which includes even children, public property, or assassination of government officials or politicians. In the past there were barbaric acts of camouflage, conspiracy, and scheming of even terrorist attacks around the world. How much ever vigilant, the efforts of security personnel could not save or detect criminals in advance which is why the network of crime has lengthened to a great extent around the world in all countries.
Criminal justice system is the most difficult and heavily burdened with great responsibilities which consists of police, courts, public attorneys and investigation agencies. For instance, Canadian governments allocates $10 billion per year for the purpose of crime investigation. A serious violation of human rights and heavy loss to the economy of nations whether crime is in evasion of taxes, theft, public violence or terrorist attacking through bombing in international airports, railway stations and commercial complexes or even shopping malls.
The venom of crime is deep rooted and requires excessive working by Federal security professionals, forensic scientists and security systems experts. Although technology is at an advanced stage, the present state of affairs, demands much more security alert and alarm systems and detection of crimes which enables the identification of criminals and culprits. The recent attacks in Glasgow airport, police officials were alert and detected criminals on time, who were taken into judicial custody for interrogation.
This further lowers anxiety and stress atmosphere in public places which at the end of day, results in heavy loss of business for airports, railway stations and bus transport systems. Methods So, which is the highest authority in considering decisions on prime most issues that are of pivotal importance in safeguarding both national and international security and peace? United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is shouldering the job of crime prevention, such as corruption, trafficking of narcotics and violation of human rights in sending people from one place to another by means of threatening or selling.
General Assembly adopted several resolutions in its 55th session in this regard. PNI is a programme of UN to prevent crime and offer criminal justice programme. This crime programme states the norms and standards of crime, which is prescribed to more than 100 nations around the world in order to undertake anti-corruption steps which in turn lead to the establishment of safety and security measures of human rights. A serious concern is placed by UN on the issues of slavery, labor, smuggling of goods which has grown rapidly in the recent years.
Illegal agencies have been developing networks to expand such criminal activities. UNODC also considers the support of UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) apart from maintaining UN Crime and Justice Information Network (UNCJIN) which is internet-based. Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) was established in the year 1997, for prevention of crime, criminal justice and for law reforms. This programme under the name of CICP has been renamed as Crime Programme by United Nations in the year 2002.
Each type of crime requires a specific working and application of methods in handling crime investigations. For instance the crime of corruption is a social and political crime which has to be investigated and prevented both at public level and at government level with the application judicial and legal procedures. the emerge of criminal groups who are benefiting with electronic and technology gadgets for easy communication, keeping adequate finances and executing violent activities in disguised forms.
In order to combat with such violent and prohibited criminal groups, United Nations has specially designed programmes which details how to investigate organized crimes. UNPNI is a network established by United Nations, which consists of 15 regional institutes for detection and prevention of crime whose offices are available all over the world. viz. , UNICRI, Italy, UNAFEI, Japan, ILANUD, Costa Rica, HEUNI, Finland, UNAFRI, Uganda, NAUSS, Saudi Arabia, AIC, Australia, ICCLR & CJP, Canada, ISISC, Italy, NIJ, USA, Raoul Wallenberg Institute, Sweden, ISPAC, Italy, ICPC,Canada, KICJP, Korea and ISS, , South Africa .
These crime prevention institutes set up by UN, work towards stabilizing the situations that are encountered from time to time and also keeps a record of all the investigations. These organizations are of tremendous support for United Nations for further detection of crime groups and to concentrate in the areas where criminal activities are more violent which require excessive safety and security measures for peace keeping. Although there are many issues that require the emergency attention, in the present scenario, terrorism and terrorist activities have been more alarming from the year 2001.
United Nations action to counter attack terrorist activities, in its effort, has launched global strategy for terrorism which is named as “Global counter-terrorism strategy” with 8 member states, who have appointed Counter-terrorism implementation Task Force (CTITF) in July 2005. CTITF consists of various representatives from WHO, IMF, OHCHR, INTERPOL, DPA, IAEA, ICAO, UNDP, The World Bank, UNODC and from several other government institutions.
At international level, terrorism has been prevalent from the year 1937 and at that time, League of Nations promulgated Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism. Results After 11 September 2001, the Security Council adopted resolution 1373(2001) which declared that cooperation of full length must be extended to member states to implement conventions. After the adoption of global counter-terrorism strategy in April 2006, by UN General Assembly, it has also stated to unanimously combat terrorism as a collective effort and to build respective capacity of forces to fight against terrorism.
For undertaking global counter-terrorism strategy funds from 18 countries were raised apart from financial contributions by the Terrorism Prevention Branch which amounted to $15. 5 million as on January 2007. Discussion The above discussion reveals that the present status on crime necessitates much more working to confront and combat the present and future challenges that may possibly occur due to the wide spread networks of criminal groups around the world.
Some of the present challenges that are facing national and international governments is terror attacks that have become a common fear on a day basis. This further deteriorates the working and life style of common man keeping on constant fear of loss of lives and losing dear ones on one side, and on the other side, governments fear national security of public offices and international areas of security i. e. frontiers. There are many challenges for anti-terrorism squads for prevention and detection of terror attacks.
As a first step, the entire security system must be reorganized, redesigned much to the extent of beyond understanding capacity of terrorists whereas the confidence and clandestine security of even police and security personnel should also be kept highly confidential. For high alert systems of security, there is tremendous scope from computer software designs, web cameras, human identification for suspicious or doubtful individuals, must be thoroughly scrutinized and utilized taking the complete advantage of computer technology.
For example, fingerprints of individuals assist in figuring out individuals through computer software. Recruitment of security squads operating on entire frontiers, all through the major international airports, public transport systems and even national government offices have to be vigilant round the clock for detection of crime.
A thorough training of high-level expertise must be provided to security squads to be alert and act on time. Governments must keep a record of terrorists entire literature viz., from which country terrorists are attacking, where from the finances are being raised and the reasons for attack and stringent laws for extradition of terrorists. Keeping in view, the past experiences that have caused immense chaos and threat to national security, apart from the fact that millions of dollars have to be spent in order to save and safeguard nation’s security, at international level, coordination and cooperation of other countries must be sought to incorporate a highest authority in crime which solely deals with terrorists alone with a panel of representatives from each nation.
The highest authoritative body must consist of panel of judges who are professionals in terror prevention and detection. Although, it is a fact that with innumerable organizations which are already dealing with crime and terror, no particular body deals with terror alone except as a subsidiary body under UN Office of Drug and Crime. Conclusion Terror and crime operate as similar to hydra and amoeba which spread network on a haphazard basis and which has no honest and sincere motives for humanity.
A long-term planning and research is required to be instituted for finding permanent solutions for these serious violation of human rights. Nations are always inter-dependent and can never be authoritative for any trade, commerce or migration of workers, particularly when global economies are developing with global consumers, companies and workers. However, no perfect freedom exists where there is fear of life threat and in the interest of common man, such inhumanitarian networks must never be encouraged or cultivated for destruction is the only crop that breeds out of these crime and violent groups.
References (1) Interest Groups in Criminal Justice Accessed 14 July 2007 http://faculty. ncwc. edu/toconnor/thnktank. htm (2) International Summit (2005) Challenges to International Peace and Security: An alternative view. Accessed 15 July 2007 http://english. safe-democracy. org/confronting/challenges-to-international-peace-and-security-an-alternative-view. html (3) My Country is better than yours Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. fadetoblack. com/bestcountry/best1. htm (4) UNODC, Crime Programme Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. unodc. org/unodc/crime_cicp.
html (5) UNODC, Crime prevention and criminal justice Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. unodc. org/unodc/en/crime_prevention. html (6) UNODC, Institutes of UN crime prevention and criminal justice program work Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. unodc. org/unodc/en/crime_cicp_uncjin_institutes. html (7) UNODC (2006) Counter Terrorism Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. unodc. org/unodc/en/terrorism. html (8) UN (2006) Coordinating counter-terrorism actions within and beyond UN system. Accessed 14 July 2007 http://www. un. org/terrorism/cttaskforce. html