United Nations General Assembly Summary

The United Nations (UN) is a human rights organization, which was established in 1945. They are committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.

Organization works on a broad range of fundamental issues, from sustainable development, environment and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and non-proliferation, to promoting democracy, human rights, gender equality and the advancement of women, governance, economic and social development and international health, clearing landmines, expanding food production, and more, in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer world for this and future generations.

The main bodies of the UN are the General Assembly, Economic and Social council, international court of justice, security council, trusteeship council, secretariat, and the repertory of practice of the United Nations organs. The one that relates most to math students is the Economic and Social council. Economic and Social Council ECOSOC was established under the United Nations Charter as the principal organ to coordinate economic, social, and related work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, functional commissions and five regional commissions. The Council also receives reports from 11 UN funds and programmes .

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to Member States and the United Nations system. It is responsible for: •promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress; •identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems; •facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation; and •encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It has the power to make or initiate studies and reports on these issues.

It also has the power to assist the preparations and organization of major international conferences in the economic and social and related fields and to facilitate a coordinated follow-up to these conferences. With its broad mandate the Council’s purview extends to over 70 per cent of the human and financial resources of the entire UN system. ECOSOC consults with academics, business sector representatives and more than 3,200 registered non-governmental organizations. The Council holds a four-week substantive session each July, alternating between New York and Geneva .

The session consists of the High-level Segment, Coordination Segment, Operational Activities Segment, Humanitarian Affairs Segment and the General Segment. In the past year the council has resolved to achieve the following goals; recognize the critical role of innovation in maintaining national competitiveness in the global economy and the role science, technology and engineering can play in developing solutions for the problems facing the world today, including climate change and the food and energy crises, and that most of the knowledge that countries need in order to address their most urgent social and economic problems already exist.

They have decided to make the following recommendations for consideration by national Governments, the Commission on Science and Technology for Development and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development: (a)Governments are encouraged to take into account the findings of the Commission and undertake the following actions: (i)Mainstream science and technology promotion and investment into their national development plans; (ii)Formulate and implement policies and programmes to:

•Strengthenscienceandmathematicseducationand mentorship for students in primary and secondary schools; •Expand opportunities for science, technology and engineering education and research for their population, especially women and particularly in the emerging technologies such as biotechnology and nanotechnology, as appropriate; •Provide, where possible, suitable working conditions for their scientific, technological and engineering talent, especially young graduates and women, in order to prevent brain drain;

•Develop mechanisms, including innovative solutions for expanding rural power supply, and the provision of broadband access to poor communities in rural areas not covered by market-driven investment to ensure access to science, technology and engineering for women, youth, the rural poor and other marginalized groups in all countries. Promote research and development in scientific, technological and engineering fields, which supports, inter alia, grass-roots food production and entrepreneurial activities of the rural population;

•Strengthen, as appropriate, linkages between the private sector, academia and financial institutions and incentives for commercialization of research and development by promoting entrepreneurship, increased venture capital funding, the establishment of technology parks and incubators and greater international collaboration; •Increase the number of full-time researchers in science, technology and engineering;