The name “United Nations”, coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in theDeclaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of Nations, an organization conceived in similar circumstances during the first World War, and established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles “to promote international cooperation and to achieve peace and security.
” However in the 1930s its success waned as the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) gained influence, eventually leading to the start of World War II in 1939. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.
The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year. UN FLAG.
* 1. The flag of the United Nations was adopted on October 20, 1947, and consists of the official emblem of the United Nations in white on a blue background. The emblem’s design is described as: * A map of the world representing an azimuthal equidistant projection centred on the North Pole, inscribed in a wreath consisting of crossed conventionalized branches of the olive tree, . . . The projection of the map extends to 60 degrees south latitude, and includes five concentric circles.
* The blue that appears in the background of the insignia was chosen to be “the opposite of red, the war colour”, * The olive branches are a symbol for peace, and the world map represents all the people of the world. WHAT IS UN? The United Nations is an international organization designed to make the enforcement of international law, security, economic development, social progress, and human rights easier for countries around the world.
The United Nations includes 193 member countries and its main headquarters are located in New York City. The UN has 4 main purposes * To keep peace throughout the world; * To develop friendly relations among nations; * To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms; * To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations to achieve these goals. UN STRUCTURE
United nations consists of 6 main organs: The General Assembly, The Security Council, The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), The Trusteeship Council, The International Court of Justice, The Secretariat. GENERAL ASSEMBLY http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=LGtMU4cof70 the General Assembly occupies a central position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the United Nations with the headquarter in New York. Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations, it provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of the full spectrum of international issues covered by the Charter.
The General Assembly meets under its president or Secretary-General in regular yearly sessions the main part of which lasts from September to December and resumed part from January until all issues are addressed (which often is just before the next session’s start). It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Functions of UN * Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining international peace and security, including disarmament; *
Discuss any question relating to international peace and security and, except where a dispute or situation is currently being discussed by the Security Council, make recommendations on it; * Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and functions of any organ of the United Nations; * Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, the development and codification of international law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian, cultural, educational and health fields;
* Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that might impair friendly relations among nations; * Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United Nations organs; * Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the financial assessments of Member States; * Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General.
* The General Assembly also approves the budget of the United Nations, and decides how much money each member state must pay to run the organization However, general assembly resolution are non-binding it’s more recommendations important indication of the world opinion and represent the moral authority of the community nations. Security council Under the Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Security Council also recommends to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and the admission of new Members to the United Nations. And, together with the General Assembly, it elects the judges of the International Court of Justice.
How to maintain peace and security When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council’s first action is usually to recommend that the parties try to reach agreement by peaceful means.
The Council may: * set forth principles for such an agreement; * undertake investigation and mediation, in some cases; * dispatch a mission; * appoint special envoys; or * request the Secretary-General to use his good offices to achieve a pacific settlement of the dispute. When a dispute leads to hostilities, the Council’s primary concern is to bring them to an end as soon as possible. In that case, the Council may: * issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the conflict; * dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought.
Beyond this, the Council may opt for enforcement measures, including: * economic sanctions, arms embargoes, financial penalties and restrictions, and travel bans; * severance of diplomatic relations; * blockade; * or even collective military action. Secretariat * The Secretariat — an international staff working in duty stations around the world — carries out the diverse day-to-day work of the Organization. It services the other principal organs of the United Nations and administers the programmes and policies laid down by them.
At its head is the Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. * The duties carried out by the Secretariat are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations.
These range from administering peacekeeping operations to mediating international disputes, from surveying economic and social trends and problems to preparing studies on human rights and sustainable development. Secretariat staff also inform the world’s communications media about the work of the United Nations; organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern; and interpret speeches and translate documents into the Organization’s official language * As of 30 June 2011, the Secretariat had 43,747 staff members around the world TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL * The United Nations Trusteeship Council , one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that trust territories were administered in the best interests of their inhabitants and of international peace and security.
The trust territories—most of them former mandates of the League of Nations or territories taken from nations defeated at the end of World War II—have all now attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countrie * TRUST TERRITORIES * The Trust Territory of the Cameroons under French administration (French Cameroons): Achieved independence as the Republic of Cameroon in 1960. * The Trust Territory of the Cameroons under British administration (British Cameroons:Following a plebiscite, Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria in May 1961 and Southern Cameroons joined the Republic of Cameroon in October 1961.
* The Trust Territory of New Guinea (Australia): after World War II, the two were combined into a unified entity for administrative purposes, although the legal distinction between the Territory of Papua and the Territory of New Guinea was maintained. In 1975, the two entities were legally unified and granted independence as Papua New Guinea. * The Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi (Belgium, effectively linked to the Belgian Congo): Separately gained independence in 1962 as Rwanda and Burundi. * The Trust Territory of Tanganyika (United Kingdom): Granted independence in 1961. in 1964 to form Tanzania. * The Trust Territory of Togoland under French administration (French Togoland): Became independent as Togo in 1960.
* The Trust Territory of Togoland under British administration (British Togoland):, this territory was merged in 1956 with the British colony of the Gold Coast, which was granted independence as Ghana in 1957. * The Trust Territory of Western Samoa (New Zealand): Granted independence in 1962, now known simply as Samoa.
* The Security Council in 1994 terminated the United Nations Trusteeship Agreement for the last Territory – the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau), administered by the United States – after it chose self-government in a 1993 plebiscite. Palau became independent in 1994, joining the United Nations as its 185th Member State. * * The international court of justice The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. Its main functions are to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly. The ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council from a list of persons nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge of the same nationality to complete the term. No two may be nationals of the same country.
Since its creation, four of the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, Russia, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States) have always had a judge on the Court. The exception was China (the Republic of China until 1971, the People’s Republic of China from 1971 onwards), which did not have a judge on the Court from 1967–1985, because it did not put forward a candidate ECOSOC The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) was established under the United Nations Charter as the principal organ to coordinate economic, social, and related work of the 14 UN specialized agencies, functional commissions and five regional commissions. The Council also receives reports from 11 UN funds and programmes. ECOSOC has 54 members; it holds a four-week session each year in July.
Since 1998, it has also held a meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The ECOSOC serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues, and for formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system.  It is responsible for: It is responsible for:
* Promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and economic and social progress; * Identifying solutions to international economic, social and health problems; * Facilitating international cultural and educational cooperation; and * Encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It has the power to make or initiate studies and reports on these issues.
It also has the power to assist the preparations and organization of major international conferences in the economic and social and related fields and to facilitate a coordinated follow-up to these conferences. With its broad mandate, the Council’s purview extends to over 70 per cent of the human and financial resources of the entire UN system. The Council meets in alternating years at UN Headquarters or at the UN Office in Geneva UN CRITICS http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=qA058B7S-Xk ————————————————- Philosophical and moral criticisms  Moral relativism  In 2004, former ambassador to the UN Dore Gold published a book called Tower of Babble: How the United Nations Has Fueled Global Chaos.
The book criticized what it called the organization’s moral relativism in the face of (and occasional support of) genocide and terrorism that occurred between the moral clarity of its founding period and the present day. While the UN during its founding period was limited to those nations that declared war on at least one of the Axis powers of World War II, and thus were capable of taking a stand against evil, the modern United Nations has, according to Gold, become diluted to the point where only 75 of the 184 member states during the time of the book’s publication “were free democracies, according to Freedom House. “
He further claimed that this had the effect of tipping the scales of the UN so that the organization as a whole was more amenable to the requirements of dictatorships.
 The UN General Assembly decided to hold a moment of silence in honor of North Korean dictator Kim Jong-il following his death in 2011. Allegations of globalism  There has been controversy and criticism of the UN organization and its activities since at least the 1950s. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a “get US out of the UN” campaign in 1959, charging that the UN’s aim was to establish a “One World Government. ” Debates surrounding population control and abortion  The United Nations Population Fund has been accused by different groups[who? ] of providing support for government programs which have promoted forced-abortions and coercive sterilizations.
Controversies regarding these allegations have resulted in a sometimes shaky relationship between the organization and the United States government, with three presidential administrations, that of Ronald Reagan, George H. Bush and George W. Bush withholding funding from the UNFPA. The UNFPA provided aid to Peru’s population control program in the mid-to-late ’90s, when it was discovered the Peruvian program had been engaged in carrying out coercive sterilizations. The UNFPA was not found directly involved in the scandal, but continued to fund and work with the population control program after the abuses had become public.  The issue played a role in the Bush administration’s controversial decision in 2002 to cut off funding for the organization.  ————————————————- Administrative criticisms .
Role of elite nations  There has been criticism that the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), who are all nuclear powers, have created an exclusive nuclear clubwhose powers are unchecked. Unlike the General Assembly, the United Nations Security Council does not have true international representation. This has led to accusations that the UNSC only addresses the strategic interests and political motives of the permanent members, especially in humanitarian interventions: for example, protecting the oil-rich Kuwaitis in 1991 but poorly protecting resource-poor Rwandans in 1994.
 Similarly, UN was quick to take a military action through NATO against Libya in 2011 against repressive regime, but as of November 2012 it still hasn’t taken any decision on whether to take any action against Syria. Membership in the UN Security Council  Any nation may be elected to serve a temporary term on the Security Council, but critics have suggested that this is inadequate. Rather, they argue, the number of permanent members should be expanded to include non-nuclear powers, which would democratize the organization. 
Still other nations have advocated abolishing the concept of permanency altogether; under the government of Paul Martin, Canada advocated this approach.  Veto power  Another criticism of the Security Council involves the veto power of the five permanent nations.
As it stands, a veto from any of the permanent members can halt any possible action the Council may take. One nation’s objection, rather than the opinions of a majority of nations, may cripple any possible UN armed or diplomatic response to a crisis. For instance, John J. Mearsheimer claimed that “since 1982, the US has vetoed 32 Security Council resolutions critical ofIsrael, more than the total number of vetoes cast by all the other Security Council members. “ Since candidates for the Security Council are proposed by regional blocs, the Arab League and its allies are usually included but Israel, which joined the UN in 1949, has never been elected to the Security Council.
The Council has repeatedly condemned Israel. On the other hand, critics contend that, while Israel has the United States to rely on to veto any pertinent legislation against it, the Palestinians lack any such power. This was best exemplified during the recent Palestinian statehood bid, which was modeled after Israel’s unilateral declaration of statehood, only to be shot down by the United States. Fait accompli  The practice of the permanent members meeting privately and then presenting their resolutions to the full council as a fait accompli has also drawn fire; according to Erskine Childers, “the vast majority of members – North as well as South – have made very clear…
their distaste for the way three Western powers behave in the Council, like a private club of hereditary elite-members who secretly come to decisions and then emerge to tell the grubby elected members that they may now rubber-stamp those decisions. “ Democratic character of the UN  Other critics object to the idea that the UN is a democratic organization, saying that it represents the interests of the governments of the nations who form it and not necessarily the individuals within those nations. World federalist Dieter Heinrich points out that the powerful Security Council system does not have distinctions between the legislative, executive, and judiciary branches: the UN Charter gives all three powers to the Security Council.
 Another concern is that the five permanent members of the UN Security Council are five of the top seven largest arms exporting countries in the world.  ————————————————- Effectiveness criticisms  Some have questioned whether the UN might be relevant in the 21st century.  While the UN’s first and second Charter mandates require the UN : “To maintain international peace and security…. (and if necessary to enforce the peace by) taking preventive or enforcement action,” due to its restrictive administrative structure, the permanent members of the Security Council themselves have sometimes prevented the UN from fully carrying out its first two mandates.
 Without the unanimous approval, support (or minimally abstention) of all 5 of the permanent members of the UN’s Security Council, the UN’s charter only enables it to “observe”, report on, and make recommendations regarding international conflicts. Such unanimity on the Security Council regarding the authorization of armed UN enforcement actions has not always been reached in time to prevent the outbreak of international wars. Even with all of these restraints and limitations in place on the UN’s abilities to respond to situations of conflict, still various studies have found the UN to have had many notable successes in the 65 years of its existence. In 1962 UN secretary general U Thant provided valuable assistance and took a great deal of time, energy and initiative as the primary negotiator between Nikita Khrushchev and John F.
Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis, thus providing a critical link in the prevention of a nuclear Armageddon at that time.  A 2005 RAND Corporation study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts. It compared UN nation-building efforts to those of the United States, and found that seven out of eight UN cases are at peace, as opposed to four out of eight US cases at peace.  Also in 2005, the Human Security Report documented a decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War, and presented evidence, albeit circumstantial, that international activism – mostly spearheaded by the UN – has been the main cause of the decline in armed conflict since the end of the Cold War.
 ————————————————- Diplomatic and political criticisms  Inability to prevent conflicts  | This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged andremoved. (June 2011)| Other critics and even proponents of the United Nations question its effectiveness and relevance because in most high-profile cases, there are essentially no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution. An early example of this was the Bangladesh liberation war and the 1971 Bangladesh atrocities committed by the Pakistan Army on Bengali Hindus.
Critics of the UN argued that the UN was completely ineffective in preventing the genocide, and thatmilitary intervention by India was the only thing to stop the mass murder.  Another such case occurred in the Srebrenica massacre where Serbian troops committed genocide against Bosnian Muslims in the largest case of mass murder on the European continent since World War II. Srebrenica had been declared a UN “safe area” and was even protected by 400 armed Dutch peace keepers, but the UN forces did nothing to prevent the massacre. In the 21st century, the most prominent and dramatic example is the Darfur crisis, in which Arab Janjaweed militias, supported by the Sudanese government, committed repeated acts of ethnic cleansing and genocide against the indigenous population.
Thus far, an estimated 300,000 civilians have been killed in what is the largest case of mass murder in the history of the region, yet the UN has continuously failed to act against this severe and ongoing human rights issue. Attention given to the Arab-Israeli conflict  Main articles: Israel, Palestinians, and the United Nations and Alleged United Nations bias in Israel-Palestine issues Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people and other aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict occupy a large amount of debate time, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. Critics such as Dore Gold, Alan Dershowitz, Mark Dreyfus, Robert S.
Wistrich, Alan Keyes, and the Anti-Defamation League consider UN attention on Israel’s treatment of Palestinians to be excessive.  According to Wistrich, “a third of all critical resolutions passed by [the UN] Human Rights Commission during the past forty years have been directed exclusively at Israel. By way of comparison, there has not been a single resolution even mentioning the massive violations of human rights in China, Russia, North Korea, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, Syria, or Zimbabwe. “ The adoption of UNSCOP’s recommendation to partition Palestine by the United Nations General Assembly in 1947 was one of the earliest decisions of the UN.
According to political commentator Alan Dershowitz, after the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the UN defined the term “refugee” as applied to Palestinian Arabs fleeing Israel in significantly broader terms than it did for other refugees of other conflicts.  In 2007, UN Human Rights Council president Doru Romulus Costea said that the UNHRC had “failed” in dealing with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.  The UN has sponsored several peace negotiations between the Israel and its neighbors, the latest being the 2002 Road map for peace. The controversial Resolution 3379 (1975), which equated Zionism with racism, was rescinded in 1991. According to Robert S.
Wistrich, “on the same day Resolution 3379 was adopted, the General Assembly decided to establish the ‘Committee on the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People. ‘ With a large budget at its disposal and acting as an integral part of the United Nations, it has for more than thirty years done everything within its power to establish a Palestinian state in place of Israel. “ Allegations of anti-Zionism and antisemitism  Main articles: Israel, Palestine, and the United Nations and Alleged United Nations bias in Israel-Palestine issues The UN has been accused by Dershowitz, human rights activists Elie Wiesel, Anne Bayefsky, and Bayard Rustin, historian Robert S. Wistrich, and feminists Phyllis
Chesler and Sonia Johnson of tolerating antisemitic remarks within its walls.  Israeli delegates to the UN “have been treated to a sickening litany of anti-Semitic abuse at the General Assembly, in the UN Human Rights Commission, and sometimes even in the Security Council” for decades.  UN conferences throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s often passed resolutions denouncing Zionism. These conferences often did not have anything to do with Middle East politics. UN documents of the period denied the existence of the Jewish people, the history of ancient Israel, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups.
 Wistrich described the 1980 World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women in Copenhagen in his book, A Lethal Obsession: “Jewish feminists heard truly chilling comments, such as ‘The only good Jew is a dead Jew’ and ‘The only way to rid the world of Zionism is to kill all the Jews. ‘ One eye-witness overheard other delegates saying that the American women’s movement had a bad name because its most prominent founding figures … were all Jewish. The feminist activist Sonia Johnson described the anti-Semitism at the Copenhagen conference as ‘over, wild, and irrational. ‘ … The psychologist and author Phyllis Chesler recorded the savage response when one Jewish woman mentioned that her husband had been shot without a trial in Iraq and that she had to escape to Israel with her children. The place went wild: ‘Cuba si! Yankee no! PLO! PLO! ‘ they shouted.
‘Israel kills babies and women. Israel must die. ‘” The most infamous example of this trend was the passage of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism, on November 10, 1975. It was the first postwar ideology to ever be condemned in the United Nations’ history. The resolution was internationally condemned in the media (especially in the media of Western countries). Many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the thirty-seventh anniversary of Kristallnacht, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust. A UN sponsored conference was held in 2001 in Durban, South Africa.
The conference was meant to combat racism, but ended up being a forum for world leaders to make various anti-Semitic statements.  Among the anti-Semitic literature freely handed out at the conference were cartoons equating the Nazi swastika with the Jewish Star of David, flyers expressing the wish that Adolf Hitler had completely killed every last Jew on Earth, and copies of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.  Tom Lantos, Colin Powell, Charles Schumer, Elie Wiesel, Irwin Cotler, Alan Dershowitz, and Robert S. Wistrich condemned the entire conference, calling it hateful, racist, and anti-Semitic.  Alleged support for Palestinian militancy  According to Dore Gold, Alan Dershowitz, and Robert S.
Wistrich, the United Nations has a long history of elevating what it calls “national liberation movements,” armed groups who commit violence against civilians to achieve political goals, virtually to the status of civilians.  In 1974 and again in 1988, the UN invited Yasser Arafat to address the General Assembly.  Alan Dershowitz accused the UN of allowing states that sponsor terrorism to sit on the Security Council.  These visits legitimized the PLO without it “having to renounce terrorism. “ In July 1976, Palestinian and German terrorists hijacked an Air France plane headed from France to Israel, landed it in Uganda, and threatened to kill the civilian hostages. Ugandan dictator Idi Amin Dada provided sanctuary for the terrorists in the Entebbe airport.
After Israel raided the Ugandan airport and saved most of the hostages, United Nations Secretary General Kurt Waldheim “condemned Israel” for the violation of “Ugandan sovereignty. “ Alan Dershowitz stated that while Tibetans, Kurds, and Turkish Armenians all desire “national liberation,” the United Nations has only officially recognized Palestinian claims to “national liberation” and allows representatives of