The main objective of the paper was to find if White African men and men from English-speaking Africa have higher net hourly earnings than that of nonwhite and non-speaking English people. Secondly, to find if South African men have higher net hourly earnings over men from a number of selected African countries. Third, to find if black African make more hourly than black African American men and women. The major variables of the article were very interesting. “1989 Hourly Earnings” were computed by yearly earnings divided by the usual hours per week. Outliers exceeding $100 dollars per hour were top coded to $100. The race was represented as a 1 for whites, and 0 for blacks. Language groups were recorded as national/popular languages spoken.
National Origins was based on self-identification of people’s nation of birth. The educational attainment was not coded for 1 as college degrees and higher. Zero was the number representing other in order to capture the potential earnings. Proficiency in English referred to the ability to speak English coded with 1 for ability to speak English well or very well, and 0 as the inability to speak English or none at all. Marital status was represented as 1 being married, and 0 as another way of being married. Age was recorded as actual age in complete years as of April 1, 1990.
Work experience was factored in a different was, because the census bureau never provided actual work experience so the age was minus years of schooling minus six. Fertility was only referred to as the many children born, but only in the women’s model. Place and region of work was divided into four regions Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. The variable for this was lacking in region of residence. Year of Entry was the last variable which has been coded as a regression analysis into four categories.
Furthermore, the hypotheses were stated clearly. The first hypothesis was explaining that Asian Africans would be discriminated in work area far as earnings. The second hypothesis predicted that Africans who came from English speaking countries were more susceptible to higher earnings then African who came from non-speaking English companies. Third hypothesis assumes that black Africans will be paid more sooner or later than black Americans.
The theoretical framework began with a theory that the industrialization of America will place greater emphasis on rationality, impersonality, and achievement in social placement within the U.S. society. Immigrants that come from a country with similar language, economics, and culture will easily be able to assimilate into countries with the same standards. The host labor market is a lot more neutral or positive towards the white immigrants, but immigrants of other race may have assets that are not sufficient. The “Human Capital Theory” presents that investment in education, training, and work experience is primary determinants in the society. Accomplishments are made by the economic migrates, and it’s easy for them to migrate because of the acquired by better education, skilled, greater ambition, talent and motivation. In the article it has been stated that Caribbean blacks are liable to be successful socioeconomic attainment.
Through a personal paradigm it seems that Africans from different countries excluding America will be successful from a better standpoint. Foreign born Africans may have some sort of problems such as racism, or recentness of their immigration, and the general negative portrayal of black African Americans which the media affects the socioeconomic attainment of black African American.
The methods for research was a sampling, and the responses to the place of birth question are used to delineate the two sub samples which were African people who reported their place of birth specifically as African or U.S, born. The other part of the sample was for people of African descent who reported their place of birth as one of the 50 states of the United States. The subsamples were restricted from people of age 25 or 64 who were working in 1989 and received positive earnings. Another method that was put to good use was the U.S. 1990 PUMS. The data from the African born was five percent while the one percent was U.S. native born. Nevertheless, the findings were very obvious. The levels of educational attainment and low levels of earnings do not apply to all Americans.
White Africans, English-speaking Africans, South Africans (89% whom were white), and man tend to have higher levels of socioeconomic attainment then black African, non-speaking English Africans (79% whom were Cape Verdeans). In result there is a huge difference among the groups in mean hourly earnings. White and English speaking African men have higher net hourly earnings then the nonwhite and none English speaking counterparts. In conclusion, the African immigration to the United States will increase if the U.S. immigration policy is still liberal. The human assets that the Africans bring will facilitate their high socioeconomic attainment. Africans who tend to be in the United States longer generally have a high earning of income. Africans education is very high, and they tend to come in with high I.Q. fit for a high level paying jobs. African women are not paid as much but may use their job as a hobby. If the history of racial minority in the United States are any guide into the future, than it is most definitely true that primary structural assimilation will exist for the black Africans.