Web Dubois

In 1903 civil right activist W. E. B. Dubois wrote an essay emphasizing the necessity for higher education to develop the leadership capacity among the most able 10 percent of black Americans. An essay which would later be called "The Talented Tenth", (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903) in this essay Dubois laid out a challenge for black education. A challenge that has yet to be realized nearly 100 years after Dubois issued it. Dubois challenged African-Americans to educate themselves to their full potential.

As a result African American today are more advance and educated but still most are still lacking the education and skills that Dubois address in his essay. What is The Talented Tenth? The "Talented Tenth" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903) was an essay wrote by W. E. B. Dubois emphasizing the necessity for higher education to develop the leadership capacity among the most able 10 percent of African Americans. In September 1903 W. E. B. Dubois states in his essay: "The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men.

The problem of education, then, among Negroes must first of all deal with the Talented Tenth; it is the problem of developing the Best of this race that they may guide the Mass away from the contamination and death of the Worst, in their own and other races. " (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903) From the above statement what W. E. B. Dubois believed is that the "Talented Tenth" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903) could lead the African American population to social equality, armed only with education and righteousness. He thought that this would solve the race problem.

Later on in "Talented Tenth" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903) essay Dubois ask the question who would make up the "Talented Tenth" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903). Dubois states: "How then shall the leaders of a struggling people be trained and the hands of the risen few strengthened? There can be but one answer: The best and most capable of their youth must be schooled in the colleges and universities of the land. We will not quarrel as to just what the University of the Negro should teach or how it should teach it" With that said the knowledge and culture from generation to generation will help African Americans grow, "through the training of quick minds and pure hearts" (Dubois, W.

E. B. , 1903) Dubois explains that no other human invention will be sufficient. W. E. B Dubois in his essay explains the importance of development and training of African Americans in his essay he states: "Education is that whole system of human training within and without the school house walls, which molds and develops men. If then we start out to train an ignorant and unskilled people with a heritage of bad habits, our system of training must set before itself two great aims ?

the one dealing with knowledge and character, the other part seeking to give the child the technical knowledge necessary for him to earn a living under the present circumstances. In closing his essay W. E. B. Dubois leaves a firm warning for white Americans: "Men of America, the problem is plain before you. Here is a race transplanted through the criminal foolishness of your fathers. Whether you like it or not the millions are here, and here they will remain. If you do not lift them up, they will pull you down" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903). These closing remarks are as true today as when they were first written.

They emphasized to white Americans that change was to come. Like it or not African American were on their way up and not to be stop by white Americans injustice acts. Booker T. Washington vs. the Talented Tenth As the principal of Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama Booker T. Washington a former slave and a dominate voice in the field of education emphasized that African American people should acquire practical skills. The students of Tuskegee Institute constructed the institute's buildings. Therefore, they learned carpentry and masonry. They grew their own fruits and vegtables.

Therefore, they learned modern, scientific farming techniques. Washington believed that black people's path for advancement required that they learned the mechanical trades. Booker T. Washington urged what he called "industrial education" (Washington, Booker T. 1903). Even though Washington did not condemn the study of subjects like science, math, or history, Washington did not think that this was practical. Washington believed that industrial education would win the support of whites. Washington thought that this would eventually encourage them to assist in the elevation of African American people to a higher level.

So you have Booker T. Washington a firm believer in "industrial education" (Washington, Booker T. 1903) being the key to the elevation of African American people and then you have W. E. B. Dubois a strong believer in academic education being the key to the elevation of African American people. "For years to come the education of the people of my race should be so directed that the greatest proportion of the mental strength of the masses will be brought to bear upon the everyday practical things of life, upon something that is needed to be done, and something which they will be permitted to do in the community in which they reside.

" (Washington, Booker T. 1903) A statement opposed by W. E. B. Dubois. With the academic history of W. E. B. Dubois's background it is not shocking that Dubois would find Washington's ideas to be restrictive. Dubois's recognized that many black people were trapped in poverty and ignorance. Therefore, ideas on education by Dubois brought him to the theory of the "talented tenth" (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903). At the same time Booker T. Washington suggested that black people need not aspire to anything beyond trade school, Dubois was insisting on a university education for the "best and most capable" black youths (Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903).

Dubois used a metaphor to explain what he hoped this "talented tenth" would do. "All men cannot go to college but some men must; every isolated group or nation must have its yeast. . . ."(Dubois, W. E. B. , 1903). Even thou Dubois and Washington seemed to take opposite sides in the educational debate. In real life, though, their educational practices were fairly similar. Courses at Washington's Tuskegee Institute included basic academics like mathematics, reading and writing skills. Meanwhile, Dubois a firm believer in excellence encouraged African-Americans to work hard, regardless of their careers.

The greater difference between Dubois and Washington was their political views. Both Dubois and Washington wanted African-Americans to have the same rights as white Americans. But Dubois encouraged African-Americans to demand equal rights. Washington, on the other hand, often ignored discrimination. He believed that it was important for blacks to develop good relationships with whites. He was afraid that blacks who demanded equal rights would create animosity between themselves and white Americans.

Through the research of Booker T. Washington view points my findings were that Mr. Washington insists on thrift and self respect, but at the same time counsels a silent submission to civic inferiority such as is bound to sap the manhood of any race in the long run. Secondly, He advocates common school and industrial training and deprecates institutions of higher learning; but neither the Negro common schools, nor Tuskegee itself could remain open a day were it not for teachers in Negro colleges, or trained by their graduates.

Lastly Washington strived virtuously to make Negroes artisans, businessmen, and property owners, but it is utterly impossible, under modern competitive methods, for workingmen and property owners to defend their rights and exist without the right of suffrage. Current Trends in American Education Academic Philosophies vs. Vocational Philosophies In a current perspective of academic philosophies Billings G. Ladson states "no challenge has been more daunting than that of improving the academic achievement of African American students.

Burdened with a history that includes the denial of education, separate and unequal education, and relegation to unsafe, substandard inner-city schools, the quest of quality education remains an elusive dream for the African American community" (Ladson-Billings, 1994, p. ix). In 1994 A. Wade Boykin investigated the behavior of African American students and identified nine cultural styles that he believes are learned in the home and manifest themselves in the learning preferences of African American children in the classroom (Boykin, A. W. 1994a).

These cultural styles or cultural assets are spirituality, harmony, movement, verve, oral tradition, expressive individualism, affect, communalism, and social time perspective (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). Boykin explains spirituality to be the belief in inner strength and that nonmaterial, religious forces influence people's everyday lives so that events in life occur for a reason (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). Also Boykin explains harmony to be the belief that ones' fate is interrelated with other elements of nature's order and that humankind and nature are harmonically conjoined (Boykin, A.

W. 1994a). Movement Boykin explains is a preference for kinesthetic activities that allow for movement and experiential learning while verve is an inclination for relatively high levels of stimulation (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). Affect refers to an emphasis on emotions and feelings with sensitivity to emotional cues and a tendency toward emotional response Boykin states (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). Oral tradition is a preference for oral modes of communication such as metaphors, analogies, graphic forms of language, and code switching.

Expressive individualism is the need for developing a distinctive personality (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). The need for social connectedness, interdependence, communal learning, affiliation, and social acceptance is known as communalism (Boykin, A. W. 1994a). These 10 components are Boykin philosophies of modern day education of African Americans when relating to field of academics. Other philosophies of modern day education of African Americans when relating to field of academics, comes from exploring the complex ways in which ethnicity and gender interact in the lives of African American students.

Ethnicity and gender may function interactively in protective or enhancing ways as well as in ways that relate to difficulty in achieving academic success. Gender differences in the ways students perceive, experience, and respond to ethnicity-related academic experiences may help to explain differences in educational achievement and attainment outcomes for African American men and women in general and with regard to their outcomes in specific institutional settings.

It has been suggested that the racial makeup of a college environment influences African American students' academic experiences and outcomes (Allen, 1987, 1988, 1992; Davis, 1995; Fleming, 1984; Nettles, 1988). However, there has been an ongoing debate as to what type of school environment is optimal for African American students. It has been argued that settings that require African Americans to interact with European American students will result in more positive educational experiences (Fordham, 1988) and that predominantly White college institutions provide superior academic resources (Wenglinsky,

1995). On the other hand, others have argued that only a race homogeneous institution can fulfill the social and academic needs of African American students (Baldwin, Duncan, & Bell, 1987; Coleman, 1990). Compare to the modern day education of African Americans when relating to field of academics. The modern day education of African Americans when relating to field of vocational prepares students for careers or professions that are traditionally non-academic and directly related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the student participates.

Nowadays there is currently a shortage of African American vocational teachers. In vocational fields, an African American presence is particularly important due to the changing ethnic and racial compositions of the work force (Michael-Bandele, 1993). The average number of courses in vocational areas completed by African American high school graduates was lower in 2000 than in 1982(U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005).

Between 1982 and 1998, the primary change in vocational/technical course taking was not in the proportion of African American high school students participating in vocational/technical education but in the amount of vocational/technical education they took (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). That is, the extent of vocational/technical course taking declined slightly, while the depth of this course taking declined more abruptly (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005).

However, most declines in vocational/technical course taking occurred by the early 1990s (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). Between 1982 and 1998, almost all African American public high school graduates earned at least some credits in vocational/technical education in high school (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). However, the average number of vocational/technical credits earned by graduates declined between 1982 and 1990, after which there were no statistically significant changes (U.

S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). During the 1990s, vocational/technical credits continued to represent a declining share of the total high school credits that graduates earned (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). This relative decline was due to the fact that public high school graduates earned on average more academic credits and to a lesser extent more enrichment/other credits over this decade (U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005).

Today's Generation Today's generation of African Americans trends indicate that the education movement started by Dubois is grown and still has the potential to surpass limits with generations to come. It is no secret that the face of American education is changing. Today, one-third of all public school students come from African American communities, and each year the nation's classrooms become more diverse. Within 20 years, African American people will make up nearly 50% of the U. S. population and, in many communities; minorities will become the new majority (U.

S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005). Across the United States, one can find a growing number of educational leaders of color. Such as Ruth J. Simmons who was named the 18th president of Brown University. Ruth J. Simmons became the first African-American woman to lead an Ivy League institution. Although progress has been made, the U. S. needs more African Americans at every level of its educational systems to serve and reflect urban populations faithfully.

Also like Simmons there are more successfully African Americans in the medical field, politics, criminal justice, sciences, education and athletic field than ever. With years to come numbers will increasingly grow. African American Role in Criminal Justice Although the number of African American police chiefs has declined since the 70s and 80s, African American now lead three of the top five largest police departments in the country and a new round of chiefs are continuing the steady advancement of Black police officers to the top echelons of police administration.

Terry G. Hillard, a 29-year veteran was appointed in February by Chicago's current mayor, Richard M. Daley, The head of the second-largest police department in America (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). Besides Hillard you have many other African Americans who head Police Departments such as Bernard E. Parks of L. A. , California was Appointed in 1997, Parks is the first African-American to rise from recruit to chief in the city's history and only the second Black chief of the third-largest police three in America(Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). Harold L.

Hurtt police chief of Phoenix, AZ was appointed the first African-American chief in April, he returns to the police department where he began his law enforcement career in 1968 (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). Hurtt retired from the Phoenix department in 1992 to accept the chief's post in Oxnard, California (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). Charles Herbert Ramsey of Washington, D. C is the first chief in three decades selected from outside the 130-year-old department; Ramsey is former deputy superintendent of the Chicago Police Department (Kinnon, Joy B.

1998). He created the nationally acclaimed Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) program (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). Beverly J. Harvard of Atlanta, GA is the first Black woman to head a major metropolitan police department; she was appointed chief of police in 1994 (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998). A 22-year veteran of the Atlanta Police Department, she began her career as a patrol officer and moved up the ranks (Kinnon, Joy B. 1998) . Besides in law enforcement African Americans are at a all time high in other fields of criminal justice.

There are more lawyers, judges, correction officers, etc?. than ever before. From the empowerment of Dubois I find that African Americans took it upon them selves to put themselves where they can make and decision and change the lives of the African American community through the enrichment of education. Race Relations in Education Race relations in higher education are currently one of the nation's major concerns. When discussing race relations in higher education, the issues of diversity and affirmative action inevitably become a part of the discussion.

Panelists At the recent airing of "Race Relations in Higher Education -- A Prescription for Empowerment and Progress," a videoconference presented live via satellite by Black Issues in Higher Education, agreed with that assessment that. When discussing race relations in higher education, the issues of diversity and affirmative action inevitably become a part of the discussion. However, according to moderator Kojo Nnamdi, they were more intent on getting past the language and rhetoric and focusing on what can be done to ensure that America's institutions of higher education remain accessible to all.

Panelists included: attorney Christopher Edley Jr. , professor of law at Harvard University and a senior advisor to President Bill Clinton on Racial Issues; attorney Sumi Cho, professor of law at DePaul University; Dr. Juan Francisco Lara, assistant vice chancellor of the University of California-Irvine; Dr. Katya Gibel Azoulay, assistant professor of Anthropology and chair of the Africana Studies department at Grinnell College; Dr. Stanley Fish, professor of English at Duke University; and Dr. Raymond A. Winbush, Benjamin Hooks professor of Social justice at Fisk University.

,". Throughout the discussion the panel concluded the discussion by suggesting that: communities rely more on themselves rather than the government to ensure college graduation rates; campuses form lobbying groups to work with legislators; institutions use creative programming to increase minority numbers; and advocates create a vocabulary that has positive connotations for affirmative action. The Unified message of Washington and Dubois In Overall Both Washington and Dubois methods for obtaining first-class citizenship may be differ.

In all t both Washington and Dubois wanted the same thing for African American. Because of the interest in immediate goals contained in Washington's economic approach, whites did not realize that Washington anticipated the complete acceptance and integration of Negroes into American life. Washington believed blacks, starting with so little, would have to begin at the bottom and work up gradually to achieve positions of power and responsibility before they could demand equal citizenship, even if it meant temporarily assuming a position of inferiority.

Dubois understood Washington's program, but on the other hand believed that it was not the solution to the "race problem. " Dubois firmly believed African Americans should study the liberal arts, and have the same rights as white American citizens. Dubois believed that African Americans should not have to sacrifice their constitutional rights in order to achieve a status that was already guaranteed. References Allen, W. (1988). The education of Black students on White college campuses: What quality the experience?

In M. T. Nettles (Ed. ), Toward Black undergraduate student equality in American higher education (pp. 57-86). New York: Greenwood. Allen, W. R. (1987). Black colleges versus White colleges: The fork in the road for Black students. Change, 19(3), 28-34. Allen, W. R. (1992). The color of success: African American college student outcomes at predominantly White and historically Black colleges and universities. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 26-44. Baldwin, J. , Duncan, J. A. , & Bell, Y. R. (1987). Assessment of African self-consciousness among Black students from two college environments.

Journal of Black Psychology, 13(2), 27-41. Boykin, A. W. (1994a). Harvesting talent and culture: African American children and educational reform. In R. Rossi (Ed. ), Schools and students at risk. New York: Teachers College Press. Coleman, J. S. (1990). Equality and achievement in education. Boulder, CO: Westview. Crouch, S. & Benjamin, P. (2002). Reconsidering the Souls of Black Folks. Thoughts on Groundbreaking Classic work of W. E. B. Dubois. United States: Crouch and Benjamin Publishing Company. Davis, J. E. (1995).

College in Black and White: Campus environment and academic achievement of African American males. Journal of Negro Education, 63, 620-633. Dubois, W. E. B. (1903). The Souls of Black Folks. Chicago: A. C. McClure & Co. ; Cambridge: University Press John Wilson and Son, Cambridge USA. Dubois, W. E. B. (1903). The Talented Tenth, Retrieved February 23, 2006, from http://teachingamericanhistory. org Fleming, J. (1984). Blacks in college: A comparative study of students' success in Black and White institutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Fordham, S. (1988).

Racelessness as a factor in Black students' school success: Pragmatic strategy or pyrrhic victory? Harvard Educational Review, 58(1), 54-84. Gibson, R. A. (1978). Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Dubois: The problem of Negro leadership. Retrieved March 2, 2006 from http://www. yale. edu. yahti/cirriculum/units/ Morgan, Joan (1997) Race relations issues overshadowed by furor over affirmative action Black Issues in Higher Education Kinnon, Joy Bennett (1998) Top black cops: African-American chiefs take the helm in metropolitan America.

Ebony Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dreamkeepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Michael-Bandele, M. (1993). Who's missing from the classroom? The need for minority teachers. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education. U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2005). Digest of Education Statistics, 2004 (NCES 2006-005), Chapter 2; U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2003).

Trends in High School Vocational/Technical Coursetaking: 1982-1998 (NCES 2003-025). Washington, B. T. , Dubois, W. E. B. , Chesnutt, C. W. , Smith, W. H. , Kealing, H. T. , C. , Dunbar, P. L. & Fortune, T. T. (1969). The Negro Problem. New York: Arno Press and The New York Times. Wenglinsky, H. H. (1995). The educational justification of historically Black colleges and universities: A policy response to the U. S. Supreme Court. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18, 91-103.