Politics Mark Scheme

Study the source below and answer the questions that follow: Source The Powers of the Northern Ireland Assembly The First Minister and Deputy First Minister, the Departments and the Departmental Committees are nominated by, answerable to, and can all be removed from office by the Assembly. Under devolution, the Assembly can make primary legislation in a number of important devolved areas including finance, economic development, education, environment, health and social services. Furthermore, as the Assembly becomes established it may take responsibility for functions such as policing and security. 1 2 3.

With reference to the Source and any other relevant material you have studied, explain two functions of the Northern Ireland Assembly. [8] With reference to the Source and any other relevant material you have studied, outline the changes in the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998. [16] Either (a) Assess the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997. [26] Compare the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and Single Transferable Vote electoral systems that are used in Northern Ireland. [26] Or (b) 4 ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education 2009 Government and Politics.

Assessment Unit AS 2 The British Political Process SPECIMEN PAPER TIME 1 hour 45 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Answer questions 1 to 4 and either 5(a) or 5(b). INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The total mark for this paper is 60. Quality of written communication will be assessed in Questions 4 and 5. ADVICE TO CANDIDATES You are advised to take account of the marks for each question in allocating the available examination time. 5 1 Identify two ways in which MPs can represent their constituents. [4] 2 Explain what is meant by the term “Life Peer”. [6] 3 Explain two criticisms made of House of Commons General Committees.

[10] 4 Explain how the judiciary acts as a check on the power of the executive. [16] 5 Either (a) “Parliament is now completely under the control of the government. ” Discuss the validity of this statement. [24] “The UK now has a system of Prime Ministerial government”.

Discuss the validity of this statement. [24] Or (b) 6 ADVANCED General Certificate of Education 2010 Government and Politics Assessment Unit A2 1 Comparative Government SPECIMEN PAPER TIME 2 hours 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Answer either questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5(a) or 5(b) in Option A: the United Kingdom and the United States of America or Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5(a) or 5(b) in Option B: the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The total mark for this paper is 100. Quality of written communication will be assessed in Questions 1, 3, 4 and 5.

ADVICE TO CANDIDATES You are advised to take account of the marks for each question in allocating the available examination time. For your chosen option, you should spend approximately 40 minutes in answering the question in Section A and should make reference to the Source in your answer.

7 Option A: The United Kingdom and the United States of America Section A: The US Constitution Study the source below and answer the question that follows: Source Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of freedom of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof: or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press: or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for redress of grievances. Amendment XV.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of race, colour, or previous condition of servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Source: The US Constitution Online: www. usconstitution. net 1 With reference to the source, and any other relevant information you have studied, discuss the extent to which the US constitution has protected the democratic rights of its citizens. 8 [30] Section B: Government in the UK and the USA.

Explain what is meant by the term collective responsibility. Support your answer with relevant examples. [5] 3 Explain how the US Senate holds the executive to account. [10] 4 Compare and contrast the effectiveness of the US Congress and the UK Parliament as legislative bodies. [25] 2 5 Either (a) “The US President is much more tightly controlled than the UK Prime Minister. ” Evaluate this view. [30] “It is in foreign rather than domestic matters that the US President has greater freedom than the UK Prime Minister. ” Evaluate this view. [30] Or (b) 9 Option B: The United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.

Section A: The Irish Constitution Study the source below and answer the question that follows: Source Legislation: Article 20 1 Every Bill initiated in and passed by Dail Eireann shall be sent to Seanad Eireann and may, unless it be a Money Bill, be amended in Seanad Eireann and Dail Eireann shall consider any such amendment. 2 A Bill other than a Money Bill may be initiated in Seanad Eireann, and if passed by Seanad Eireann, shall be introduced in Dail Eireann. A Bill initiated in Seanad Eireann if amended in Dail Eireann shall be considered as a Bill initiated in Dail Eireann.

3 A Bill passed by either House and accepted by the other House shall be deemed to have been passed by both Houses. Source: Bunreacht na hEireann © Government of Ireland / Houses of the Oireachtas 1 With reference to the Source and any other relevant material you have studied, discuss the extent to which the Irish Constitution has contributed to effective government in the Republic of Ireland. 10 [30] Section B: Government in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland Explain what is meant by the term ‘ministerial responsibility’. Support your answer with relevant examples.

[5] 3 Explain how the Dail can act as a watchdog on the executive. [10] 4 Compare and contrast the legislative role of the House of Lords and the Seanad. [25] 5 Either 2 (a) “The Taoiseach enjoys much more control than the UK Prime Minister over cabinet colleagues. ” Evaluate this view. [30] Or (b) “Executive control over the legislature is more complete in the UK than in the Republic of Ireland. ” Evaluate this view. 11 [30] 12 ADVANCED General Certificate of Education 2010 Government and Politics Assessment Unit A2 2 Political Power and Political Ideas SPECIMEN PAPER TIME.

1 hour 30 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Answer either questions 1, 2 and 3(a) or 3(b) in Option A: Political Power or Questions 1, 2 and 3(a) or 3(b) in Option B: Political Ideas. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The total mark for this paper is 60. Quality of written communication will be assessed in Questions 2 and 3. ADVICE TO CANDIDATES You are advised to take account of the marks for each question in allocating the available examination time. For your chosen option, you should make reference to the Source in answering Questions 1 and 2. 13 Option A: Political Power

Study the source below and answer the questions that follow: Source Democratic Power Democratic societies are marked by a clear diffusion of political power. No one individual or institution is able to dominate power and no significant section of society is excluded from power. The mechanisms that ensure this are present in democracies but absent in dictatorships or other authoritarian systems. In dictatorships power is concentrated in the hands of a ruling elite or often in the hands of a single individual who is able to exercise executive, legislative and judicial power without restriction.

Many current democracies were like this in the past but have undergone a gradual process of democratisation, sometimes but not always, involving the revolutionary overthrow of the state. 1 2 3 Which theory of political power is put forward in the source? With reference to the source and any other relevant material you have studied, give three reasons for your choice. [10] With reference to the source and any other relevant material you have studied, explain the main criticisms made of the theory of power you identified in Question 1. [15] Either (a) Evaluate the factors that can contribute to the legitimacy of the state.

[35] Evaluate the reasons why some states enjoy much greater stability than others. [35] Or (b) 14 Option B: Political Ideas Study the source below and answer the questions that follow: Source The Power of the State The state is a major threat to individual liberty, even in democratic societies. This is because the state acts in the interests of the majority of society rather than for all, even when governments claim to be acting in the ‘national interest. ’ It is therefore essential that the power of the state must be limited and contained if individual freedom is to be protected.

For example, government must be prevented from restricting the free expression of opinions and views that run contrary to the opinions of the majority. Freedom of expression is a requirement of a free society. Where freedom of expression is restricted the entire freedom of the individual is at risk. 1 2 3 Which ideological view is put forward in the source? With reference to the source and any other relevant material you have studied, give three reasons for your choice. [10] With reference to the source and any other material you have studied, explain how ideological opponents of the view in the source might criticise it.

[15] Either (a) Evaluate Edmund Burke’s arguments against sudden and dramatic political change as expressed in Reflections on the Revolution in France. [35] Or (b) Evaluate the argument, expressed by Marx and Engels in the Communist Manifesto, that the development of capitalism will inevitably lead to its own destruction. 15 [35] 16 Mark Schemes 17 18 General Marking Instructions These mark schemes are intended to ensure that the AS/A2 examinations are marked consistently and fairly. The mark schemes provide examiners with an indication of the nature and range of candidate responses likely to be worthy of credit.

They also set out the criteria which they should apply in allocating marks to candidates’ responses. The mark schemes should be read in conjunction with these general marking instructions which apply to all papers. Quality of candidates’ responses In marking the examination papers, examiners will be looking for a quality of response reflecting the level of maturity which may reasonably be expected of 17- and 18-year-olds, which is the age at which the majority of candidates sit the AS/A2 examinations. Flexibility in marking.

The mark schemes which accompany the specimen examination papers are not intended to be totally prescriptive. For many questions, there may be a number of equally legitimate responses and different methods by which the candidates may achieve good marks. No mark scheme can cover all the answers which candidates may produce. In the event of unanticipated answers, examiners are expected to use their professional judgement to assess the validity of answers. If an answer is particularly problematic, then examiners should seek the guidance of the Supervising Examiner for the paper concerned.

Positive marking Examiners are encouraged to be positive in their marking, giving appropriate credit for valid responses rather than penalising candidates for errors or omissions. Examiners should make use of the whole of the available mark range for any particular question and be prepared to award full marks for a response which is as good as might reasonably be expected for 17- and 18-year-old GCE candidates. Conversely, marks should only be awarded for valid responses and not given for an attempt which is completely incorrect and inappropriate.

Types of mark schemes Mark schemes for questions which require candidates to respond in extended written form are marked on the basis of levels of response which take account of the quality of written communication. These questions are indicated on the cover of the examination paper. Other questions which require only short answers are marked on a point for point basis with marks awarded for each valid piece of information provided.

Levels of response Questions requiring extended written answers are marked in terms of levels of response. In deciding which level of response to award, examiners should look for the ‘best fit’ bearing in mind that weakness in one area may be compensated for by strength in another. In deciding which mark within a particular level to award to any response, examiners are expected to use their professional judgement. The following guidance is provided to assist examiners. Threshold performance: Response which just merits inclusion in the level and should be awarded a mark at or near the bottom of the range. 19

Intermediate performance: Response which clearly merits inclusion in the level and should be awarded a mark at or near the middle of the range. High Performance: Response which fully satisfies the level description and should be awarded a mark at or near the top of the range. Quality of written communication Quality of written communication is taken into account in assessing candidates’ responses to all questions that require them to respond in extended written form. These questions are marked on the basis of levels of response.

The description for each level of response includes reference to the quality of written communication which is incorporated within the marks awarded for AO3. Where the quality of candidates’ subject knowledge and understanding is not matched by the quality of written communication, marks awarded will not exceed the maximum for Level 4. 20 ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education 2009 Government and Politics Assessment Unit AS 1 The Government and Politics of Northern Ireland SPECIMEN PAPER MARK SCHEME 21 1 Background The Northern Ireland Assembly has many functions. Source A refers to a number of these.

One mark is awarded for each relevant function identified from Source A (AO1: 2 marks). Up to three marks are awarded for each relevant explanation (AO1: 6 marks). Total marks 2 Background At the time of the signing of the Good Friday/Belfast Agreement the DUP threatened not to cooperate in the devolved government of Northern Ireland and in particular, not share power with Sinn Fein before the IRA had fully decommissioned. However, since then the DUP and Sinn Fein have seen their electoral performance improve dramatically, making them the two biggest political parties in Northern Ireland.

Within the DUP, there is a growing realisation that the restoration of devolution will require them to work with Sinn Fein. Furthermore, amongst unionist voters there is considerable support for local, accountable devolved government and increasing frustration with Direct Rule. All of these factors have changed the DUP’s views on devolution. Level 1 ([1]-[4]) AO1: 2 marks; AO2: 1 mark; AO3: 1 mark. The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding of the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998 (AO1). A small amount of relevant evidence is presented.

There is little analysis and evaluation of information, arguments and explanations and only a very basic understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is poor. An argument, if present, is ill informed and poorly constructed and the level of communication and use of political vocabulary are both rudimentary (AO3). Level 2 ([5]-[7]) AO1: 3 marks; AO2: 2 marks; AO3: 2 marks. The candidate demonstrates outline knowledge and understanding of the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998 (AO1).

There is restricted reference to relevant evidence and partial analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating incomplete understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is limited. An argument is constructed, although the level of communication and the structure and the presentation of ideas are both basic. There is restricted use of appropriate political vocabulary (AO3). 22 [2] [6] [8] Level 3 ([8]-[10]) AO1: 4 marks; AO2: 3 marks; AO3: 3 marks.

The candidate demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998 (AO1). There is some reference to relevant evidence and limited analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating some understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is satisfactory. An argument is constructed although the level of communication, the structure and presentation of ideas and use of appropriate political vocabulary are limited (AO3). Level 4 ([11]-[13]) AO1: 5 marks; AO2: 4 marks; AO3: 4 marks.

The candidate demonstrates general knowledge and understanding of the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998 (AO1). There is reference to relevant evidence and analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations, demonstrating understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is generally good. An argument is constructed which displays clear communication and presentation of ideas. There is appropriate use of political vocabulary and a conclusion is reached (AO3). Level 5 ([14]-[16]) AO1: 6 marks; AO2: 5 marks; AO3: 5 marks.

The candidate demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the DUP’s policy on devolution since 1998 (AO1). There is reference to a range of relevant evidence and thorough analysis of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating clear understanding of the point of the question (AO2). Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of a consistently high standard. A structured argument is constructed which displays effective communication and presentation of ideas. There is consistent use of appropriate political vocabulary and a clear and logical conclusion is reached (AO3). 3 (a) Background.

There has been a steady improvement in the electoral performance of Sinn Fein at Westminster, Assembly and local council elections since 1997. In the 2005 Westminster General Election, Sinn Fein won five seats making them the largest Nationalist political party in Northern Ireland, displacing the SDLP. There are many significant reasons for this including the IRA ceasefire of 1994 and subsequent decommissioning, support for inclusive devolved government and an increased electoral base due to demographic changes. However, the SDLP has not been totally eclipsed and has retained a strong political presence, particularly at Westminster.

Level 1: ([1]-[6]) AO1: 2 marks; AO2: 3 marks; AO3: 1 mark. The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997 (AO1). A small amount of relevant evidence is presented. There is little analysis and evaluation of information, arguments and explanations and only a very basic 23 [16] understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is poor. An argument, if present, is ill informed and poorly constructed and the level of communication and use of political vocabulary are both rudimentary (AO3).

Level 2 ([7]-[11]) AO1: 4 marks; AO2: 5 marks; AO3: 2 marks. The candidate demonstrates outline knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997 (AO1). There is restricted reference to relevant evidence and partial analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating incomplete understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is limited. An argument is constructed, although the level of communication and the structure and the presentation of ideas are both basic.

There is restricted use of appropriate political vocabulary (AO3). Level 3 ([12]-[16]) AO1: 6 marks; AO2: 7 marks; AO3: 3 marks. The candidate demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997 (AO1). There is some reference to relevant evidence and limited analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating some understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is satisfactory.

An argument is constructed although the level of communication, the structure and presentation of ideas and use of appropriate political vocabulary are limited (AO3). Level 4 ([17]-[21]) AO1: 7 marks; AO2: 9 marks; AO3: 5 marks. The candidate demonstrates general knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997 (AO1). There is reference to relevant evidence and analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations, demonstrating understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is generally good.

An argument is constructed which displays clear communication and presentation of ideas. There is appropriate use of political vocabulary and a conclusion is reached (AO3). Level 5 ([22]-[26]) AO1: 8 marks; AO2: 11 marks; AO3: 7 marks. The candidate demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the reasons for the changes in Sinn Fein’s electoral performance since 1997 (AO1). There is reference to a range of relevant evidence and thorough analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating clear understanding of the point of the question (AO2).

Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of a consistently high standard. A structured argument is constructed which displays effective communication and presentation of ideas. There is consistent use of appropriate political vocabulary and a clear and logical conclusion is reached. (AO3). 24 [26] (b) Background The use of two distinctive electoral systems in Northern Ireland, for Assembly and Westminster elections, allows for a comparison of their effects upon representation. The ‘First Past the Post’ Westminster system, as elsewhere, favours the two largest parties and discriminates against others.

In Northern Ireland this means that the DUP and Sinn Fein have been advantaged while the SDLP and especially the Ulster Unionists have lost out. The Single Transferable Vote (STV) system, by contrast, produces a more fractured and complex picture of party support, even allowing small parties such as the Greens to gain seats. The “middle ground” is not totally excluded as it is under the Westminster system. Level 1 ([1]-[6]) AO1: 2 marks; AO2: 3 marks; AO3: 1 mark. The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding of the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and STV electoral systems in Northern Ireland (AO1).

A small amount of relevant evidence is presented. There is little analysis and evaluation of information, arguments and explanations and only a very basic understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is poor. An argument, if present, is ill informed and poorly constructed and the level of communication and use of political vocabulary are both rudimentary (AO3). Level 2 ([7]-[11]) AO1: 4 marks; AO2: 5 marks; AO3:2 marks. The candidate demonstrates outline knowledge and understanding of the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and STV electoral systems in Northern Ireland (AO1).

There is restricted reference to relevant evidence and partial analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating incomplete understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is limited. An argument is constructed, although the level of communication and the structure and the presentation of ideas are both basic. There is restricted use of appropriate political vocabulary (AO3). Level 3 ([12]-[16]) AO1: 6 marks; AO2: 7 marks; AO3: 3 marks.

The candidates’ demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and STV electoral systems in Northern Ireland (AO1). There is some reference to relevant evidence and limited analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating some understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is satisfactory. An argument is constructed although the level of communication, the structure and presentation of ideas and use of appropriate political vocabulary are limited (AO3).

25 Level 4 ([17]-[21]) AO1: 7 marks; AO2: 9 marks; AO3: 5 marks. The candidate demonstrates general knowledge and understanding of the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and STV electoral systems in Northern Ireland (AO1). There is reference to relevant evidence and analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations, demonstrating understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is generally good. An argument is constructed which displays clear communication and presentation of ideas.

There is appropriate use of political vocabulary and a conclusion is reached (AO3). Level 5 ([22]-[26]) AO1: 8 marks; AO2: 11 marks; AO3: 7 marks. The candidate demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the effects of the ‘First Past the Post’ and STV electoral systems in Northern Ireland (AO1). There is reference to a range of relevant evidence and thorough analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating clear understanding of the point of the question (AO2). Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of a consistently high standard.

A structured argument is constructed which displays effective communication and presentation of ideas. There is consistent use of appropriate political [26] vocabulary and a clear and logical conclusion is reached. (AO3). 26 ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY (AS) General Certificate of Education 2009 Government and Politics Assessment Unit AS 2 The British Political Process SPECIMEN PAPER MARK SCHEME 27 Question 1 1 Up to two marks for each appropriate way identified (AO1: 4 marks). 2 [4] Background A Life Peer is a member of the Upper House of the British Parliament. Life Peers are appointed by the Monarch on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

They only hold their position during their life-time, unlike Hereditary Peers. Life Peers are supposedly appointed on the basis of their record of contribution to society in various sectors. Some, however, argue that Life Peer appointments are simply a reward to supporters from the party in power. Others hold that Life Peers make a considerable contribution to Parliament because of their experience and expertise. One mark for each relevant feature identified or two marks for each relevant feature explained up to a maximum of six (AO1: 6 marks). 3 [6] Background

General Committees (previously known as Standing Committees) in the Commons have been attacked as being largely ineffective as legislative scrutiny bodies. They are executive dominated, heavily whipped, lack powers and prestige, only deal with the details of Bills rather than basic principles and the Commons can reject any amendments they make. One mark for each relevant criticism given and up to four marks for each explanation (AO1: 10 marks). 4 Background One of the functions of the judiciary in any democratic society is to check the power of the executive by holding it to account. The judiciary can do this in a number of ways.

Judicial Review allows executive actions to be declared ultra vires and there are numerous examples of governments being challenged in this way. Judicial Inquiries are another mechanism that allows the judiciary to enquire into and criticise executive actions. The incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into British legislation has enhanced the powers of the judiciary to challenge executive decisions. Level 1 ([1]-[4]) AO1: 2 marks; AO2: 1 mark; AO3: 1 mark. The candidate demonstrates basic knowledge and understanding of the ways in which the judiciary can act as a check on the executive (AO1).

A small amount of relevant evidence is presented. There is little analysis and evaluation of information, arguments and explanations and only a very basic understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is poor. An argument, if present, is ill informed and poorly constructed and the level of communication and use of political vocabulary are both rudimentary (AO3). 28 [10] Level 2 ([5]-[7]) AO1: 3 marks; AO2: 2 marks; AO3: 2 marks. The candidate demonstrates outline knowledge and understanding of the ways in which the judiciary can act as a check on the executive (AO1).

There is restricted reference to relevant evidence and partial analysis and evaluation of information, arguments and explanations demonstrating incomplete understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is limited. An argument is constructed although the level of communication and structure and presentation of ideas are both basic. There is restricted use of appropriate political vocabulary (AO3). Level 3 ([8]-[10]) AO1: 4 marks; AO2: 3 marks; AO3: 3 marks.

The candidate demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the ways in which the judiciary can act as a check on the executive (AO1). There is some reference to relevant evidence and limited analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating some understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is satisfactory. An argument is constructed although the level of communication, the structure and presentation of ideas and use of appropriate political vocabulary are limited (AO3). Level 4 ([11]-[13]) AO1: 5 marks; AO2: 4 marks; AO3: 4 marks.

The candidate demonstrates general knowledge and understanding of the ways in which the judiciary can act as a check on the executive (AO1). There is reference to relevant evidence and analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations, demonstrating understanding of the point of the question (AO2). The quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar is generally good. An argument is constructed which displays clear communication and presentation of ideas. There is appropriate use of political vocabulary and a conclusion is reached (AO3). Level 5 ([14]-[16]) AO1: 6 marks; AO2: 5 marks; AO3: 5 marks.

The candidate demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the ways in which the judiciary can act as a check on the executive (AO1). There is reference to a range of relevant evidence and thorough analysis and evaluation of political information, arguments and explanations demonstrating clear understanding of the point of the question (AO2). Spelling, punctuation and grammar are of a consistently high standard. A structured argument is constructed which displays effective communication and presentation of ideas. There is consistent use of appropriate political vocabulary and a clear and logical conclusion is reached (AO3).

29 [16] 5 (a) Background It is the view of many that there has been a steady decline of the independence of Parliament throughout the 20th century, a trend that is considered to be still continuing. In this view, Parliamentary sovereignty has been eroded by the growing power of the executive to the point where the legislature is little more than a “rubber stamp” used by government to legitimise its actions. However, there are those who would reject this view. They would argue that Parliament still has considerable capacity to influence legislation and can sc.