The Industrial Revolution began in England for many reasons. In 1700s, Britain’s economy was mainly an agricultural economy. Wealthy landowners bought up all the land and enclosed their land with fences allowing them to cultivate larger fields called enclosures. This caused the enclosure movement, which put most small farmers out of work causing them to move to cities.
This movement to cities is known as urbanization, which gave Britain a large population of workers. Britain also had many natural resources and an expanding economy to support industrialzation, or the process of developing machine production of goods. The resources needed to provide these goods and services were called factors of production, which included land, labor, and capital (wealth).
Besides the postive effects, the Industrial Revolution also had negative effects. Because of urbanization, many cities, whose infrastructure system could not keep up with the rapid population growth, were overcrowded with people looking for jobs. England’s cities lacked decent housing, sanitary codes, education, and police protection.
Many workers of the working class lived in small, dirty shelters where sickness was widespread. With the introduction of steam, factory conditons became worse. Machines injured workers. Many factory owners wanted to get the cheapest labor possible. To do this, factory owners hired workers, mostly women and children because the were the cheapest labor, so they could work long hours for low wages. As the working class saw little improvements in living and working conditions, the middle class, made up of skilled workers, professionals, factory owners, and other well do to people, saw improvements in their lives.
The middle class was now able to afford things that the wealthy only had acess to, such as servants. In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution created a major gap between the rich and the poor. Many reformers felt that the government needed to play an active role to improve the standard of living for the poor. Many ideas and philosophies were created as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. An economic system, called socialism, grew during the 1800s as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution.
It called for more state influence, equal rights, and an end to inhumanity, which stood strongly opposite to individualism and laissez-faire politics. Laissez-faire philosophy (capitalism), which was first started by Adam Smith, suggested that owners of industry and business set working conditons without the government intervening.
The changes associated with the Industrial Revolution transformed Britain from an agricultural society to a modern industrial one. The predictability and stability of the British government, the raw materials cultivated through the British Empire, and the rapid development of inventions and innovations all contributed to this transformation, due largely to the money available at that time.
The impact of the Industrial Revolution was a positive experience for some, but it was a great difficulty for others. Because of the demands for reform and protection for workers arose, government and unions began to take place. That was how the evils of the Industrial Revolution addressed in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Unions are voluntary associations joined by workers. The Combination Act of 1800, which hindered the growth of unions, states that every workman’s goal, who are entering into any combination should not be obtaining an advance of wages, or to lessen or alter the hours, or influencing any other to quit his work. Any workman who did so shall be committed to jail (Doc 1).
Although the Combination Act of 1800 prevented the growth of unions, Ralph Chaplin believes that a worker should join the union. He states that there can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun, but the unions, which makes it strong (Doc 2). Since there’s so many workers working in bad conditions, the labor laws came to action.
The Industrial Revolution had a positive and negative affect on the new world. Bringing many new inventions, factories, and transportation. The factories produced items faster and the new invention of ships and vehicles made trade move quicker and farther.
Was this all a positive affect on the world? Some would argue that it was not. In document 1 we see an excerpt from an interview with a man (Joseph Hebergam) that worked in one of the various factories. Joseph was diagnosed with an illness of the lungs and has extensive nerve damage to his legs. In the interview he states that he got this illness from all the dust and pollutions in the air from the factories, And would die with in a year.
Document 1 also provides information on the death rate of children in the factories. In a little over a year a dozen children were killed. But then in Document 2 we are told by Andrew Ure that the children are very happy in the factories, absolutely no child abuse, and as for exhaustion; none to be seen. Same for Document 5, the children are well fed and educated. These are two different points of view on the factories and their workers. Making it hard to know which one to listen to.
In Document 3 The author is encouraging factories and saying the Industrial Revolution is improving the communities and lives all around the world. Making homes, clothing, food, and many other equipment faster and safer. Travel also became cheaper and easier. Factories gave women and children places to work and receive pay. The women in the factories were well dressed and clean as said in document 6.
Beginning in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. This revolution greatly increased the output of machine made goods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because of its many natural resources such as coal, iron, water, and lead. Great Britain had natural harbors and rivers. Great Britain was an Island in Western Europe that was separated from Europe, which meant no wars. Also, the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because of the textile industry.
Britain had an abundance of cotton, used in the making of textiles. When the cottage industry and the manufacturing of clothing at home changed to the factory system, new machines were being created. Also, several key-inventors of these machines were from Great Britain and contributed to the factory system being established. Also, efficient transportation was already set up in Britain and it was further innovated with the demand between producers and suppliers.
Great Britain also had a lot of natural resources such as coal and iron. the Industrial Revolution affected every part of life in Great Britainm but proved to be a mixed blessing. Eventually, indutrialization led to be a better quality of life for most people. But the change to machine production initially caused human suffering. Rapid industrialization brought plentiful jons, the ills of child labor. It also led to rising class tensions, especially between the working class and the middle class.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain for many reasons. Great Britain’s Geography was one of the best. It had natural harbors and rivers, and it also had natural resources such as water and coal and iron. in (document 1) in order to industrialize, England must have the resources such as coal, iron, water, wool, cotton, tin and lead. Also, in (document 2) the geography of England helped them industrialize by having many