1.0 Introduction Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750s to 1850s. It was first started in Great Britain particularly in England then spread to Western Europe, japan and northern America as well as rest of the world. This industrial revolution was a process where machines take over the functions of hand tools, thus, the production increase.
Many new machines were invented by the inventors in this period, for example, James watt invented the steam engine in 1755 to pump water out of mines. There were many factors overlapping why Industrial Revolution was started in England, enough supply of labor, Support from the Government, appropriate land for agriculture, and wealth of natural resources are some of the factors that contributes to the beginning of industrial revolution in England. Industrial revolution can be said as a period of transformation where changes occur in agriculture, technology, and transportation, because of this, industrial revolution is combination agriculture and mechanical revolution.
Mechanical revolution is invention of new machines mainly to manufacture of cloths, as well as for other usages, for example “water frame” was invented by Richard Arkwright, “spinning mule” designed Samuel Crompton , “the flying shuttle” was invented by John Kay and for making thread , James Hargreaves developed the “spinning jenny”.
Clockwise from top: spinning mule by Samuel Crompton, the flying shuttle by john kay and spinning jenny by james harvgrevas. Whereas, Agriculture Revolution arises when new methods of corps cultivation were developed to increase the production, a group of people came up with new idea to increase this production for example, Thear invented chemical manure to keep the fertility of soil, Townshend introduced “Rotation Farming” where different corps been planted at a same soil and mixed farming were introduced. In bird eye view, Industrial revolution is an event that lead to another, from agriculture and mechanical revolution, the transport and communication evolves.
This was period were drastic changes occur on social and economy in England that causes impact on society whether positive and negative, because of this industrial revolution England became very famous, rich and powerful compare to other country, it became a important turning point in history, almost every aspects of our life is influenced in some way by the contribution of this industrial revolution. In the following pages, this positive and negative effects will be discussed more further.
2.0 Positive Effects. 2.1 Urbanization. The major positive effect of industrial revolution is Urbanization. Increased opportunity of job in new mills and factories caused people migrate from rural area to cities, further more workers in mills and factories were well paid compare to those who doing agriculture. The increase of factories brings to the development of towns and cities. According to Robert Hughes in his book called The Fatal Shore explain that population of England is 6million from 1700 to 1740, but it increases dramatically after that soon reached 16.8 million in 1850 and rapidly increased an reached 30.5 million in 1901.
This industrial revolution also shows the changes of roles of man and women , this is because, in the farm working together, but soon after industrial revolution or new industrial society, the workplace and home of both men and women were separated. Men worked at a factory, whereas women usually worked at home. Women’s worked in factories and then take of their children after work, increased opportunity of job caused the working people can get more money and by this money women ate better and had healthier babies.
This industrial revolution also bring changes in the education where upper middle class children had a chance to get education whereas, lower class children had no chances to been educated , this is because in this because the wealth of this middle class industrialists and businessman had increased and over the wealth of the land lords . 2.2 Transportation.
Another positive effect of industrial revolution is the developments of the transportation. In the beginning of the industrial revolution, the transportation that was used to transport the product was by the rivers and roads and some used vessels to move heavy goods by sea. So people started to think on how to transport goods more quick and cheap. In result, some of the inventors came up with the idea of transportation by using canals and railways.
Figure above shows the first bridge water canals that cross over the Manchester ship canal and the left figure shows the first railway in 1830. Canals is the manmade waterways that build to transport large quantities of raw materials and goods from one place to another.
This Canals was the first technology that can bring a big amount of goods to be transported across the country. There are few advantages using of canals that is very cheap, can carry more goods and use of canals is much safe than roads because the roads were unpaved and got a lot of holes. Besides that, Stephenson’s invention of railways was a new generation of transport.
Although since 17th century there was wagonways that use for moving coal in mines, but Stephenson took idea to move further, in result build the steam engine to the wagon. It helped to brings coal and tin to the surface much fast. Most of the industry benefited by the railways because goods can be transported in a big quantity and much faster than before. It helped to created bigger markets and decreases of costs of transportation, on the other hand, the build of railways increases the demand of coal and steel. 2.3 Technology Innovation.
Industrial revolution related to innovation of machines because the needs of powers to produce more goods or things to fulfill the big demand from the society and industry. Many new machines were invented in many fields during this period of time, the following pages will go through some of the machines that were invented in many field to produce to increases productivity. Many new machines were invented to increases the productivity. Below here were some of the examples: 2.3.1 Textiles.
During this period of industrial revolution, the demand of cottons to fulfill the demand caused many inventors came up with ideas of cotton spinning machines to increases its production. For example spinning jenny introduced by James Hargreaves’s, spinning mule by Samuel Crompton’s and water frame who was introduced by Richard Arkwright. Some of the pictures of this spinng machines had been shown in the earlier page.
All this machines were invented to increase the production of cotton and export of cloths. Spinning jenny is a machines that can spin threads of wool, this machines can spin 8 threads at once , but James developed and extent this machines that can spin 120 threads at one time, Whereas water frame is a large wheel turned by running water. Richards Arkwirght’s water frame.
2.3.2 Steam Engine. Steam engine were invented by James watt in 1775, the main function of this machines is to pump water out of the mines. Although this machines were invented mainly to pump water out of the mines, but soon the function has been transformed according to the needs for example this engine been use to power up the locomotives. This steam engine is been a base or corner stone to invention of other engine. The following figure shows the James watt steam engine.
2.4 Industrialization. Industrial revolution brings to industrialization, in result Britain was the first to become industrialized in the world. This industrialization caused Britain became the rich country in the eighteen century. England can make fortune because able to trade some of the natural resources to other countries by the invention in transportation, as well as transport its own product. By the production of iron, it improved its trade and upsurge its wealth because other countries started to industrialize and England supply some of the iron.
During this period of industrial revolution, many famous industrialists emerged. They were the people who ran the factories and make fortunes. Some of the famous industrialist is Samuel Greg and Titus Salt. Gerg has a big cotton mill in Styal, south of Manchester, Whereas Titus salt made his fortune in the Wool trade. He owned a number of mills in Bradford. Salt made garments from alpaca wool that had been famous in that era.
From left Samuel Greg and Titus Salt.
3.0 Negatives Effects. 3.1 women and children during Industrial Revolution. The industrial revolution brings a great demand of labor. So women and children was brings to work in farms, factories and industrial plants. This is because during this period there was no legislation about working condition. As was the greater demand of labor caused the employers didn’t want pay workers high salary, therefore children was brings to work in mills, factories and mines.
This was an advantage for the employees because children was cheap, weren’t big enough and educated to argue and complain about the working condition. Adding, the size of the children were fit enough to go through some of the small gap and holes as shown by this picture below.
A young drawer pulling a coal tub along the mine gallery. Most of the children as age of 8 or 9 years old are required to work more than 12 hours a day, this is because there were no restriction age of workers. This children were beaten when the not paying complete attention when work.
Besides children, demand also increases for women for work, they often work in the mills and mines and some of them become maids for the family who is rich. Many of them worked in mine, mills, factories and other industrial plants as same as the children and men whom work for very long hour and in a very poor condition.
The women faced a big challenge here because they needs to work and at the same time needs to looking after children, washing and cook for their families. This industrial revolution brings a rapid increase of birth because of the demand for children to work. During this period of time, most of the families had more than 10 children to meets the demand of the labor. This clearly shows a great impact on the physical strength of a mother. Because of this, women need to work for financial reasons, and when they go for work, the leave their children to older relatives toke care. 3.2 Poor working condition.
The working condition in the factories, mills and industrial plants were very poor during the industrial revolution. Because of this many workers died because of this condition and a big number of worker were injured for the reasons of very tight space, long working hour caused they very tired, lack of expertise and poor lighting. Many of the injured and killed also were the children, for example lost hand and limb as crushed by machines and the records of Felling Colliery disaster shows that many of the explosion victims were children.
On the other hand, dust and fumes in the factories killed many people because of lung damage. The workers will start at five in the morning and finished work at nine at night, further more the had only fourty minutes for breaks only contributes to this effects. Most of these problem were not taking any precaution steps by the factory’s owner, and because of this some people actually died in the factories. 3.3 Exploitation of working class.
The working condition in the factory were very cruel, workers were treated as slave rather than
Human being. The sets of rules that was constructed were very cruel and most of the time benefit the company. For example workers who arrive late would lose half of an hour’s pay even though they were just two minutes late. These workers also could not leave the factory the working hours even they were sick.
A very little pay was given to the workers even though they work for long hours. They needs to work even the lights went off when they working. This exploitation caused the labor very poor, uneducated, and humiliated as well as treated as inferior. 3.4 Pollution.
Another negative effect of industrial revolution is pollution. The evolve of many factories led to pollution and poor air quality. Many of the people whom live in this affected countries had struggle through life, most of them were the working class. Because of this many people were frustrated with this condition but they can’t do anything because of the money matter to move to into a better area.
Besides that poor sanitary condition is a negative effect of industrial revolution. According to Friedrich Engels whom visited an industrial city and state, the streets were full of holes and usually unpaved. Most of the streets have no drains, all the rubbish were in the stagnant and because of this, diseases spread quickly. 3.5 Spread of Diseases.
Another effects of industrial revolution is spread of diseases, it caused many death during industrial revolution. Diseases like cholera typhoid and typus spread very quickly. spread of this disease very quickly is because many people used river water that contact with the sewage. Among three diseases, cholera was the greatly feared diseases; it killed almost 7,000 people from 1831 to 1832 and 17,000 people died in London from 1848-1849. Most diseases affect most of the people in the who live in the poorer areas of the cities, but the rich were also effect by this diseases.
Another disease that caused death of the poor is TB. This affected most of the people whom lived in dirty and damp homes. It can spread by a person breathing in the exhaled sputum of someone who already has the disease. In Britain, 1800 to 1850, this TB killed almost one-third of the population.
4.0 Conclusion. Industrial Revolution seems to be important turning point in history, although few hundred years has past but we are influenced in some way in every aspects of our life. Industrial Revolution leave negative and positive effects, but in overall it the employers used the harsh way to control the labor, the see the labor much more like a tools or machines than as a resources.
The poor working condition in the factories shows that the owners only focused on making fortunes and ignore the rights of the worker. In some way, goods are cheap because of industrial revolution, and traders compete to get the market. At last it benefits the people where they can get goods at lower prize. Many inventions in era of industrial revolution seem to be a capstone for today technology. Although this industrial revolution was first started in England, but it then spread to Western Europe, northern America and japan.
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