Organisations have a right to trade and do business, but not at the expense of polluting the air we breathe or the water we use, or creating noise nuisance or safety hazards with the traffic they cause. At a global level, if we as individuals or organisations contribute to global warming, we will affect the lives of the people we have never met who live in the low lying areas which will flood when sea levels rise. Some substances emitted into the atmosphere have a direct effect on human health.
Car exhaust fumes contain volatile organic compounds, which are not only harmful in themselves, but react in bright sunlight to form a smog which irritates the eyes and respiratory tract. Diesel exhausts produce tiny particles known as PM10s, as well as aldeyhdes, which are harmful to humans. Environmental protection Act 1990 An Act to make provision for the improved control of pollution arising from certain industrial and other processes.
To re-enact the provisions of the Control of Pollution Act 1974 relating to waste on land with modifications as respects the functions of the regulatory and other authorities concerned in the collection and disposal of waste and to make further provision in relation to such waste. To restate the law defining statutory nuisances and improve the summary procedures for dealing with them, to provide for the termination of the existing controls over offensive trades or businesses and to provide for the extension of the Clean Air Acts to prescribed gases. The act also regulates waste management and disposal.
Producers and handlers of waste are now bound by a duty of care to ensure waste is disposed of directly to a waste disposal authority or to a registered carrier, accompanied by a transfer note, or a consignment note in the case of special waste. A waste management licence for a waste disposal site is required from the Agency, and the site may only be run by a fit and proper person. The Agency is required to inspect closed landfill sites. Waste collection remains the responsibility of the local authorities and there may be charges for certain types of waste.
Waste collection authorities must make waste recycling plans, and recycling credits may be arranged. Waste disposal is run commercially by local authority waste disposal companies or by private contractors, and is subject to competitive tendering. The term-controlled waste includes household, industrial and commercial waste, but not mining and agricultural waste. Clinical waste is also defined. Clean Air Act 1993 This act deals with the emission of dark smoke from agriculture, industrial burning, industrial furnaces, railway engines and ships.
The best practicable means must be used to reduce emissions and furnaces are required to be fitted with plant for arresting grit and dust. Chimney heights are also specified. The act is enforced by local authorities, which can prosecute directors, managers and employees. The act also specifies maximum concentrations of lead and sulphur in motor fuel. This act states that during the course of construction and life time of the development dark smoke should not be emitted from any industrial or trade premises.
And if, on any day, dark smoke is so emitted BAA and its partners who cause or permit the emission will be guilty of an offence. Water Resources Act 1991 This act regulates the activities of the Environment Agency. The Agency is obliged to prevent pollution of a watercourse or groundwater. The Agency establishes water quality objectives for controlled waters, and issues consents to make discharges to watercourses. To pollute a watercourse is a criminal offence and offending individuals and companies can be prosecuted. Registers of consents are maintained by the Agency.
The act enables the Agency to set up water protection zones and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food to designate nitrate sensitive areas. Water Industries Act 1991 The water industries Act 1991 is to consolidate enactment's relating to the supply of water and the provision of sewerage services, with amendments to give effect to recommendations of the Law Commission. This act obliges sewerage undertakers to provide and maintain a drainage and sewerage system, and to authorise and charge for the discharge of trade effluent to sewer.
The Water Resources Act 1991 controls the duties and powers of the Environment Agency in England and Wales in water management, abstraction and drought. The act also established statutory water quality objectives for rivers and complete catchment systems. The Water Industry Act 1991 sets out the duties of water companies in England and Wales in the supply of water, in the provision of sewerage services, and in the provision and variation of consents for the discharge of trade effluent into the public sewer. The act also authorises the charging schemes for the acceptance and treatment of trade effluent.
Planing Act and planning regulations This act requires a local authority to assess the environmental effects of development projects, and to consult the Environment Agency before granting planning permission. Before the borough of hillingdon could give BAA permission to go ahead with the development, they contacted the Environmental Agency who assessed the environmental impact both short and long-term. BAA was given the go ahead with certain conditions i. e. relocation of habitants & investing in environmental protection.