Discrimination towards

Discrimination towards Africans-Americans has always been on the rise, and characterized by a stagnating display of development in terms of educational attainment, housing and job availability. Stigmatization of an entire community depending on stereotypes of group attributes tremendously impairs advancement of various talents of African-Americans making it very hard for them to prosper in the eyes of the mainstream White-Americans (Riphagen, n. d. ).

Bias is manifested in the case where observations obtained from extensively concentrating on the poor, unemployed and underclass African-Americans are generalized as representatives of the whole sweep of African-American across the mainstream American society (Riphagen, n. d. ). The justice system is the other social sector where African Americans are heavily discriminated against. The justice system depicts a clear disproportion of African-American population in the U. S. prisons. Various policies are tailored with an aim of putting more African-Americans in prison as compared to other communities.

Africans-Americans are also sentenced for longer and harsher jail terms for crimes of the same magnitude as compared to other communities especially the mainstream white community (Riphagen, n. d. ). An extremely disturbing fact is that a very large percentage of African-American men are in prison as compared to those who are enrolled in higher education (Riphagen, n. d. ). Housing segregation in addition to education segregation is one of the most severe segregation systems against the African Americans in the United States.

Housing segregation is a common aspect subjected to African-Americans of low economic status. Properties belonging to African-Americans suffer from extreme devaluation even though they may be in the same neighborhood as very expensive properties belonging to the whites. Americans learning institutions are currently believed to be more segregated as compared to how they were about 30 years ago. Even though the U. S. offers one of the most unique education systems in the world, a large proportion of predominant African-American schools face concentrated poverty (Riphagen, n. d. ).

Labeling theory is one of the most suitable sociological theories that can apply to the African-Americans. This theory, according to Ritzer (2007), has it that deviance is not an intrinsic feature, rather it pays attention to the linguistic propensity of mainstream population to negatively label minority groups as well as those seen to deviate from what is considered to be normal in society. Self identity and behavior of individuals is heavily influenced by the expressions used to describe them.

Stereotyping is a major aspect of the labeling theory (Ritzer, 2007). This theory can be applied to African-Americans because they have for long been termed as lazy people, criminals, and discriminated against in all sectors of life. Labeling of a particular community greatly affects the social functioning of that group (Ritzer, 2007). Social workers as a result of these stereotyping find it very hard to offer their full potential in service to African-Americans. African Americans are thus discriminated against in the provision of social welfare services.

Globalization, capitalism and consumerism have tremendous effects on welfare work and on welfare clients. Globalization incorporates the universal spread of capitalist social relations in addition to integration into all aspects of life (Dominelli, 2004). Globalization, created by capitalist entrepreneurs, has little regard of the impact it has on the life of members of poor communities it touches, and do not take heed of the benefits of maintaining some jurisdictions of life outside ambit (Dominelli, 2004).

Globalization brings about regulation of private life by way of consumerism as well as commodification of interpersonal associations, brings in new forms of governance, and also opens up communal services to private providers (Dominelli, 2004). As a result, they have blurred the divide that exists between the public and private sector and also minimized the obligations of the state for the welfare of individuals in addition to perpetrating the Americanization of cultural forms globally. Globalization, as indicated by Dominelli (2004), has resulted in a change in the nature of various social relations and directly affected the local state.

The state has been drawn into capitalism through making the local economy more competitive and its labor force more flexible with intent of turning production capability into a commodity as well as produce large quantities of goods at a reduced cost. As a result, social welfare provision has been greatly affected as they have been drawn into this territory (Dominelli, 2004). Goetz and Schmiege (1996) states that integration to mainstream society and politics is one of the most appropriate ways through which discrimination of the African-Americans as well as other marginalized communities can be done away with.

Racial segregation cannot result in enhanced education for all if bias in addition to disproportionate treatment continues. Bussing African American children to white neighborhoods can therefore be employed as one of the ways through which segregation in learning institutions can be eliminated (Goetz and Schmiege, 1996). Goetz and Schmiege (1996), states that elimination of discrimination in employment is the other factor that can help improve the living standards of African Americans and finally bring the rampant marginalization to an end.

Reference: Dominelli L. , (2004), Social work: theory and practice for a changing profession, ISBN 0745623832: Wiley-Blackwell Goetz K. , and Schmiege C. , (1996). From marginalized to mainstreamed, Family Relations, Vol 45, 375-379 Riphagen L. , (n. d. ). Marginalization of African-Americans in the social sphere of the US society, retrieved on June 3, 2010 from http://www. ijis. aau. dk/articles/vol5_no1 /5_Linde_PDF. pdf Ritzer G. , (edn 7), (2007), Sociological Theory, ISBN 0073528188: McGraw-Hill Higher Education Toporek R. , (2006), Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology: leadership, vision, and action, ISBN 1412910072: SAGE