57 spills with volumes estimated at ≥ 11,000 MTs since mid-1960s
•Exxon Valdez is smallest of this group, but is most well know for coastal impacts
•2 largest ‘spills’ are multiple events during recent armed conflicts
•Persian Gulf War in 1991
•Chechnyan insurrection in 2000
•72% are from tankers
•7% each from wells and storage tanks
•3% pipelines and cargo vessels
•1 lone refinery
Although Valdez is #57 on this list, it probably top 5-10 in environmental damage and #1 political damage. Most infamous are those where oil stranded on shorelines
Model provides Business Units with guidelines for mounting an appropriate field response and managing issues.
Accidental discharges occurring at or near a vessel or facility as a result of disruption in routine operations. Impacts are low and in-house response capability is adequate.
Examples of Tier 1 Spills:
• Overflow of sumps or oil-water separators
• Leakage or overflow of tanks
• Leakage from valves, pipelines or transfer hoses
• Accidental discharge of bilge water from vessels
• Tank truck/tank car rollover near water
Medium-size spills occurring within the vicinity of vessel or facility as a consequence of a non-routine event. Significant impacts are possible and external (regional) support for adequate spill response, e.g., assistance from a local spill cleanup co-operative, is required.
Examples of Tier 2 Spills
• Cargo loss due to tanker grounding, collision, or system failure
• Rupture of a sub-sea pipeline
• Spills due to fire or explosion at a terminal or on a tanker
• Spills due to sabotage, natural disaster, or blowout
• Tank collapse near water
Large spills occurring either near or remote from a vessel or facility as a result of a non-routine event, requiring substantial resources and support from national or worldwide spill co-operatives to mitigate effects perceived to be wide-reaching, i.e., spills of national or international significance.