Chinese philosophy

1. ) What is the role of centralized government in Chinese history? Why is the Dynastic cycle a critical component of Chinese society? China had a large population. A strong centralized government was needed to keep order. With a strong government China was able to expand its population. The dynastic cycle was a critical component of Chinese society because once one dynasty grew weak; a new dynasty could come in and start fresh to fix the issues. The new dynasty would start out strong and develop communities with a strong economy. Then, that dynasty would grow weaker and fall victim to internal rebellions or invasions.

The cycle would start over. 2. ) What role does the Confucian system play in China? What is a notable problem Confucius set out to rectify? What is meant by the Rival Chinese schools? The Confucian system was based on the teachings of Confucius. Confucius spread ideas about political virtue and good government. He was not a religious leader which shifted Chinese values. He emphasized the importance of personal virtue. He believed that if people were taught that they would find a reverence for tradition and a solid political life. Confucius set out to rectify political disorder.

He emphasized individual virtuous behavior. He thought that whatever a ruler did, his people would imitate and follow. The people will imitate the ruler’s self control. Confucius set up levels of authority stressing personal restraints and careful socialization of children. Rival Chinese schools are the thoughts and teachings of different philosophers that had different ideas that went against each other, such as Confucianism and Daoism. 3. ) Page 42: The passage that begins “I take no action and people are reformed” is from the Confucian writings.

I feel this way because Confucius believed that whatever the leader did, his people would follow. The passage that begins “The gentleman cherishes virtue” is from the Confucian teachings because he emphasized the importance of personal and political virtue. The passage that begins “The nature of man is evil” is Confucian teaching because he believed that people should behave modestly without excess in power. “Keep your mouth closed” “Personal cultivation begins with poetry” and “when it is left to follow its natural feelings human nature will do good” are Daoist teachings because it is talking about harmony in nature.

The last three teachings (on the right) can be considered religious because Confucius was not a religious leader. The last two teachings on the left (“the gentleman cherishes virtue” and “the nature of man is evil”) are most compatible because they are talking about how man has to work for and cherish what he has. The teachings of Confucius are most secular because he focused on politics and less on religion. The teachings of Confucius are best suited for people who want to build a strong unified political order because he taught that the people will follow a leader who self control and wanted to rectify political disorder.

Page 45/46: Most women in patriarchal societies were pleased with their conditions. They were brought up thinking that they had to obey men. They didn’t know any other way than to follow orders from men. Religion might play a role in how women are treated in patriarchal societies. Some religions may have goddesses. Also, how money is made may contribute to this because women may be needed more to do specific jobs. Upper-class women were often considered more inferior to men than lower class women were because upper-class women were the property of their husbands.

If a woman was a slave she was more independent. 4. ) What is the traditional role of a farmer? What is the role of a merchant? What major economic innovations did the Chinese make use of? The traditional role of a farmer is to produce crops using animal and man power. The role of a merchant is to sell goods to make a profit. The Chinese made use of copper coins. This made trade easier. They circulated with merchants. Vocabulary: Mandarin: A dialect of Chinese. Mandate of Heaven: The divine right to rule.

When someone thinks that they were given a message from God to rule over their people. Dynasty: the ruling family in China. Some dynasties include the Zhou (1029-258 B. C. E) the Qin (221-206 B. C. E) and the Han (206 B. C. E-220 A. D. ) Daoism: Teachings that focused on harmony in nature. It was similar to China’s earliest teachings. It was a more religious approach than Confucianism. Confucianism: based on the teachings of Confucius, a philosopher. It taught about strong personal and political virtue. It wanted to correct political disorder. A less religious approach than Daoism.

Analects: a collection of philosophical excerpts of Confucius Bureaucracy: a system of government where important decisions are made by state officials rather than elected representatives. Feudalism: a social system where lands were given to nobles from the ruler in exchange for military protection. Great Wall: a wall built along the northern edge of China to keep out invaders. It is 3,000 miles long and was made wide enough for carts. Legalism: an alternative system of political thought that favor of an authoritarian state that ruled by force. It was the singular punishment for most crimes.