A group is a team of people, who are motivated to join, perceive each other as members and interact with each other. A group may also be defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. So simply congregation of people is not a group. Congregation of person must satisfy three conditions to become a group. There are:
□ People must interact each other, □ They must psychologically recognize each other and □ They should perceive themselves as a group. The term group can be defined in a number of different ways, depending on the perspective that is taken.
A comprehensive definition would say that if a group exists in an organization, its members: □ Are motivated to join
□ Perceive the group as a unified unit of interacting people □ Contribute in various amounts to the group processes (that is, some people contribute more time or energy to the group than do others) □ Reach agreements and have disagreements through various forms of interaction Individuals formed group for the following reasons-
□ To satisfy mutual interests □ To achieve security □ To fill social needs □ To fill need for self esteem.
Groups are formed mainly for two reasons, the first is to make administration of individuals easier and the second is to get complex tasks done more effectively. The group is made up of individuals who have individual needs which is turn require team need once they are formed. Different people bring different needs to a group and this sometimes makes it difficult for the group to work effectively. The way a group works together is call “Group Dynamics.”
THE DYNAMICS OF GROUP FORMATION
Why do individuals form into groups? A more comprehensive theory of group formation than mere propinquity comes from the classic theory of George Homans based on activities, interactions, and sentiments. These three elements are directly related to one another. The more activities persons share, the more numerous will be their interactions and the stronger will be their sentiments (how much the other persons are liked or disliked); the more interactions among persons, the more will be their shared activities and sentiments; and the more sentiments persons have for one another, the more will be their shared activities and interactions.
This theory lends a great deal to the understanding of group formation and process. The major element is interaction. Persons in a group interact with one another not just in the physical propinquity sense or increasingly electronically, but also to accomplish many group goals through cooperation and problem solving. There are many other theories that attempt to explain group formation.One of the more comprehensive is Theodore Newcomb’s classic balance theory of group formation. The theory states that persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes toward commonly relevant objects and goals.
Figure 11.1 shows this balance theory. Individual X will interact and form a relationship/group with individual Y because of common attitudes and values (Z). Once this relationship is formed, the participants strive to maintain a symmetrical balance between the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs, an attempt is made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves. Both propinquity and interaction play a role in balance theory.
Reasons of work group formation Why work-groups are formed? The question may be answered that work-groups are formed to enjoy certain benefits or advantages by their members, which they cannot enjoy individually. So, they feel attraction 'towards the group. The members can enjoy the under mentioned benefits through the groups:
□Companionship and Friendship: An individual gets companions and friends in his group with whom one can interact and mutually communicate one's experiences and ideas. One cannot live alone for long. He needs companions and friends to pass time or to achieve the individual's objectives. Group develops cooperation among its members. Members share feelings of each other.
□ Security and Protection: Group provides security and protection to its members. There may be difference of opinions among members but they forget differences when they feel them selves insecure from certain outside forces. They jointly protect themselves. Each member of the group expects other members that they could save him in odd times.
□ Better Work Situations: The people form work-group to advance group position for improving their work conditions, environment and wages. It is a means for collective bargaining in an organization. Most probably the people unite themselves under informal leadership, show their strength and demand for better conditions:
□ Help with the Work: Work situations require help of others in day to day working.He consults, seeks advice for performing his job efficiently and expects removal of any impediment in the way-of performing his job. So, group removes difficulties of the members and help with the work.
□ Communication and Information: A work group is a media of communication for its workers. It gets it member acquainted with the news and information. Facts and rumors spread very quickly within the group. It has the abnormal capacity to carry the information and rumor. Communication within the group is necessary for the adjustment of individuals in challenging work situations.
□ Satisfaction of Needs: Work groups are formed because members get their needs especially self-esteem or self-actualization needs, satisfied through groups for which they are formed. A person may be a member of different groups which serve his various interests. They promote self-confidence among members. Following are the some other reasons for the formation of groups:
□ Propinquity-spatial/geographical proximity: Groups may be formed due to the geographical nearness of individuals. For example, employees living in the same area may form a group or people having desks close to each other in the office may get together as an informal group.
□ Common activities, interactions, sentiments: Groups may form due to the common activities of individuals. When people go together for lunch in the organization, they interact with each other and share the sentiments. This sharing of sentiments and interaction between individuals results in the formation of a group.
□ Balance theory, similar ideas and attitudes: Balance theory suggests that groups form due the sharing of similar ideas and attitudes by people. When people have similar ides and think alike, they tend to gel together. For example, religion, lifestyles, work, etc. all can be sources or similarity and therefore group formation.
□ Exchange theory: Exchange theory is based on the reward-cost outcomes of interaction. When people find some sort of a reward from interaction with others, they tend to be together which results in formation of groups.
□ Economic security/social needs: By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing alone. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group.
“Reasons behind formation of work group.”
Work group formation in an organization is very much beneficial for individuals for various reasons; like economic, security, or social reasons. Economically, workers may form a group to work on a project that is paid for on a group-incentive plan such as gain sharing, or they may form a union to demand higher wages. For security, joining a group provides the individual with a united front in combating indiscriminant, unilateral treatment. Whatever the reasons are behind in forming groups, it is beneficial for both individual and organization. Because working in a group enhances satisfaction and performance in the following ways: □ Makes for a more effective total system.
□ Lightens the workload on management. □ Fills in gaps in a manager’s abilities. □ Provides a safety valve for employee emotions. □ Improves communication. □ Provide economic safety increase performance level.
Work group formation is very much beneficial for individuals and organization for the following reasons-
Makes for a more effective total system. Lightens the workload on management. Fills in gaps in a manager’s abilities. Provides a safety valve for employee emotions. Improves communication. Provide economic safety increase performance level. By enhancing satisfaction and performance, work group provide psychological, official, economical and social support to an individual. Managing career has never been as important as it is today. The individual must be responsible for creating and managing his or her own career. Group help individual to increase his or her employee ability, which ensure job security.
* Organizational Behavior (Tenth Edition) - Luthans, Fred. (2005). * Managing Human Resources (Fourth Edition) - Mejia, Gomez. Balkin, David & Cardy, Rober. (2006).
* Organizational Behavior (Seventh Edition) - Robbins, P., Stephen. (1996). * Group Formation & Development- Phil Bartle
* Working with Team- Air Cadet NCO Development Training * Group Dynamics- Donelson R Forsyth (Fourth Edition) * Group dynamics- Wikipedia * Answers.com * Group Dynamics: Basic Nature of Groups and How They Develop * Group Dynamics- DR.MD. SHAHADAT HOSSAIN * Class Lectures Economic security/social needs
Communication and Information
Satisfaction of Needs
Help with the Work
Security and Protection
Better Work Situations
Companionship and Friendship
Formation of a work group