ExxonMobil is the world’s leading petroleum and petrochemical company and also the largest refiner and marketer of petroleum products. Its history began with the establishment of Standard Oil Co. in 1870. Later in 1911 it breaks up into 34 companies as a result of a U.S. Supreme Court decision, two of them being Jersey Standard and Standard Oil Co. of New York (Socony). The former was known for the trade name Esso until it changed its name to Exxon Corporation. The latter changed its name to Mobil. In 1999, both eventually merged to become Exxon Mobil Corporation, which now market their products under three brands: Esso, Exxon, and Mobil. Organization
Exxon Mobil is based in the United States of America with its central headquarter being in Houston, Texas, USA. It operates thousands of drilling sites and refineries spread in many countries all continents through its subsidiaries or other companies formed by joint-venture schemes with various local governments or local companies. Its regional headquarters are located in Machelen, Belgium (Europe), Dubai (Middle East and Africa), and Singapore (Asia-Pacific) Negative Impacts on home and host countries
Environmental•Ranked 6th in TOXIC 100: top 100 US corporate air polluters in USA released by Political Economy Research Institute in 2002 Rank Corporation Toxic score(pounds released x toxicity x population exposure)Millions of pounds of toxic air releases 1E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co.
475,482 17.152United States Steel Corp.359,681 2.843ConocoPhillips284,772 8.044General Electric Co.266,308 4.466Exxon Mobil Corp.247,699 15.477Ford Motor Co.244,782 9.67Source: http://www.peri.umass.edu/Toxic-100-Press.262.0.html •Exxon Mobil is responsible for Valdez Oil Spill on 24 March 1989 that discharged approximately 11 million gallons of oil (240,000 barrels) into Prince William Sound, affecting 1300 miles of the remote Alaskan coastline.
ExxonMobil responded slowly and have not paid the US$ 2.5 billion punitive damage yet. Various states have also fined ExxonMobil for various cases of pollution. •In March 2003 Kazakhstan’s highest court upheld a ruling against Tengiz-Chevroil oil company, whose US partners include ExxonMobil, for failing to dispose a sulphur byproduct properly, thus endangering public health and the environment The company was fined 1.08 billion tengi ($7.15 million dollars)
•Report from the Union of Concerned Scientist suggests that it has pumped $16 million to fund skeptic groups in their disinformation campaign, thus delaying action by the public and government to prevent global warming. •Friends of the Earth estimated that ExxonMobil is responsible for 5% of the world’s manmade carbon dioxide emissions over 120 years. This is based on a study by Richard Heede of Climate Mitigation Services that estimates ExxonMobil’s emission of CO¬2 and methane to be about 20.3 billion tons of carbon (4.7-5.3% of global emission).
Another study by Jim Salinger and Greg Bodeker of New Zealand-based National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA) finds out that ExxonMobil’s emissions have contributed between 3.4- 3.7% of total attributable temperature change since 1882, and 2 percent of the sea level rise. •From as soon as early 1970s, villagers around the Arun gas field operated by Mobil, and later ExxonMobil have complained that natural gas flaring and chemical spillages have contributed to various health problems in surrounding villages. Their industrial waste has also polluted the rice paddies and fish ponds. Social
•In June 2001, International Labor Rights Fund (ILRF) filed a case against ExxonMobil under the Alien Torts Claims Act representing 11 residents from Aceh for alleged involvement in murder, torture, kidnapping, and sexual abuses by employing and providing material support to Indonesian military forces, who committed the alleged offenses during civil unrest in Aceh. The State Department asked to dismiss the suit that possibly hurt US interests until District Judge Louis Oberdofer allowed the ruling on March 3, 2006.
Politics•ExxonMobil is allegedly involved in George W. Bush decision to be involved in wars in oil-rich Middle Eastern countries such as the Iraq war. ExxonMobil used its profits to buy political influence, e.g. by funding election campaigns. In return, ExxonMobil has benefited from, among other things, over $5 billion in taxpayer subsidies over the last 10 years.
These moneys are provided via institutions like the US Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, and the World Bank. •Using the Freedom of Information Act, the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) received a memorandum from the White House Council on Environmental Quality detailing ExxonMobil’s confidential campaign to remove Dr. Robert Watson from his chair on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a position he held since 1996. The campaign began in the first weeks of the Bush Administration and has since decided to oppose Watson’s appointment to a second term as chair. Economics
•Exxon Corp. is allegedly cheated 10,000 station owners out of $500 million over a 12-year period by inflating wholesale fuel prices, a federal jury ruled. Exxon Mobil was ordered to pay $500 million in compensatory damages to about 10,000 dealers who claimed the company cheated them in a gasoline discount program, the plaintiffs’ lawyer said on Tuesday. Positive Impacts on home and host countries ExxonMobil is involved in various campaigns and programmes:
•The Exxon Mobil China Environmental Education Fund initiated, and is participating in, a paper-recycling program in Beijing, China with a number of other governmental and non-governmental organizations. The project, which was begun in July 2001, targets government and institutional offices and commercial buildings to encourage the recycling of paper. Garbage-recycling system standards will also be set for offices and schools, and those that meet these standards will be given awards. Social
•In April 2004 ExxonMobil announced it will fund more than $2 million in research and partnership grants to global health organisations in an effort to halve malaria cases in African communities from 1998 levels. In 2001 the company donated a total of $1.3 million to the Harvard Malaria Initiative (HMI) and the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to support research and development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines. The company also donated an unspecified amount to the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) programme (a WHO project) to support antimalarial projects in five African countries where ExxonMobil operates