The Public Interest Disclosure Act

A job description needs to be written this outlines the job title, as well as the tasks and the responsibilities that will be covered by the successful applicant. Once this is completed, then a job specification needs to be written, this goes beyond a description of the job, and it lists the physical and mental attributes that will be desirable or essential for the successful applicant (such as the level of intelligence, their disposition and their interests).

The H. R. M. department will then need to write an advertisement for the job and to place it in a variety of media (newspapers, job centres, job agencies, the internet, radio, and internal notice-boards), in order to get as many people as possible to apply for the post. Marks and Spencer also shoe their vacancies in the store. The advertisement will include the hours of work, the pay and fringe benefits, the job title, the relevant experience and qualifications that are required, and a contact name and address. It is likely that the job will be advertised within the business as well as through external media.

The advantages of recruiting from within the existing workforce include the fact that a shorter training and induction period is necessary, as well as far less time and money being spent on the whole process. The H. R. M. department will then need to send out application forms to, and request Curriculum Vitae (CVs) from, all those people who write to Marks and Spencer expressing a desire to apply for the job. It is vitally important that the application form is tailored to the specific post that is being advertised, as well as asking questions that are relevant, legal, inoffensive and essential.

Once these application forms have been completed and returned to the business (often with a CV and a covering letter) then the short-listing process will ensue, this involves analysing the CVs and the application forms and deciding which applicants appear to be most suitable for the post. Once this is done and then the H. R. M. department will contact the successful applicants and ask them to attend an interview. The interview process is very time-consuming but is, nevertheless, an essential factor in getting the 'right' person for the 'right' job.

A good interviewer will have studied the job description, the job specification and the job advertisement before interviewing the applicants, as well as studying their application forms, CVs and covering letters in order to know as much information as possible about the applicants before the interview commences. A good interview needs to be well structured, uninterrupted, and conducted in a friendly manner, with the use of open-ended questions, which will give the applicants the chance to talk openly about themselves. The interviewer must listen carefully to the applicants' comments and make notes as necessary.

At the end of the interview, the applicants must be given the opportunity to ask questions about the job and about the business, and then the interviewer must inform the applicants when they will be notified of the decision. It is likely that applicants for a job will be interviewed by a number of people. This can be in sequence (i. e. the applicant will have one interview quickly followed by another) or it can be simultaneous (i. e. the applicant will be interviewed by a panel of people). Whichever method of interviewing is chosen, the purpose remains the same, to select and appoint the 'best' applicant for the job.

It is possible that Marks and Spencer may choose to use a variety of tests to complement the interview process, in order to measure the applicants' intelligence, their performance in certain scenarios, and their personality traits. Once a Marks and Spencer has selected the most suitable applicant for the available post (often involving much discussion between the different interviewers), then he/she will be appointed. This will involve the new employee being given a Contract of Employment, which is a written statement covering the terms and the conditions of employment (e. g. date employment commences, job title, pay, hours of work, holiday and pension entitlements), as well as the process for disciplinary and grievance procedures.

Once a new employee has been appointed to Marks and Spencer, it is likely that they will receive induction training in order to help them settle into the new job. This induction training covers the basics of the new employee's job, as well as the background details and the history of Marks and Spencer (e. g. number of employees and the range of products). However, training is not limited to the new employees of a business.

Training courses are likely to be targeted at all employees in the business at various stages in their career (e. g. management training courses, training on how to use new machinery and technology). There are many reasons for the extensive use of training across the workforce of a business: 1) Training can improve employee productivity. 2) Training can create a multi-skilled, flexible workforce. 3) Training can increase the levels of job satisfaction and motivation of the employees. 4) Training employees increases the chances of their promotion.

Training can be classified as either 'on-the-job' or 'off-the-job'. 'On-the-job' training involves the employees receiving their training at the place of work (using such techniques as work-shadowing, apprenticeships, and mentoring). 'Off-the job' training involves the employees attending courses away from their workplace (e. g. at local colleges, conference centres and universities). It is also imperative that all training courses that are attended by employees are evaluated in order to determine if the training course provides value for money for the business.

Asking the employees to complete short questionnaires and provide feedback to the H. R. M. department often carries out this evaluation. The final role of the H. R. M. department is to make the termination of the employees' contracts of employment as smooth and efficient as possible. There are a number of different ways in which employees can have their contracts of employment terminated, including: 1) Redundancy. It will be necessary at certain times (e. g. during a recession, or a decline in the industry) for a business to 'downsize' its workforce (make a certain proportion of them redundant).

This process could be done in several ways, voluntary redundancy (where workers opt for a redundancy package), compulsory redundancy, 'last-in-first-out' (where the most recent appointments are the first to be made redundant), or retention by merit (where the least effective employees are made redundant). 2) Retirement. At the end of their working-life, employees will wish to retire and stop offering their services to the business. In return, they will often receive a lump-sum payout, as well as both their state pension and their private pension.

3) Transfers and Resignation. This occurs when an employee leaves Marks and Spencer and transfers their services to another business (the employee may apply for a more senior job at another business). 4) Dismissal. This is where the employee is deemed to have broken their contract of employment, and told that their services are no longer required by the business. Fair dismissal can be on the grounds of sexual harassment, racial harassment, bad timekeeping, sleeping on the job, and destruction of business property.

However, if an employee feels that they have been unfairly dismissed (e. g. on the grounds of pregnancy, ethnic background, or union membership), they can apply to have the case heard at an industrial tribunal. This is a small court that deals with claims of unfair dismissal and discrimination from employees against their (former) employers. If the employee is successful in claiming that they have been unfairly dismissed, then they are eligible for re-instatement in their previous job, as well as a financial award (to cover loss of earnings, and pain and suffering).

In all areas of the activities of Marks and Spencer, but especially it seems within Human Resource Management, the business must ensure that it abides by every piece of legislation, regardless of the stakeholder group which the legislation protects (e. g. employees and customers). The main pieces of legislation affecting the successful operations of the Human Resource Management department are: 1) The Employment Relations Bill, 1999 (stating that employees who have been in employment with the same business for a period of one year have the right not to be unfairly dismissed).

2) The Employment Rights Act, 1996 (covering unfair dismissal, redundancy and maternity). 3) The Public Interest Disclosure Act, 1998 (covering employees who disclose confidential information). 4) The Health & Safety at Work Act, 1974 (covering working conditions and the provision of safety equipment and hygiene). 5) The National Minimum Wage Act, 1999 (making it illegal for employers to pay less than i?? 3. 60 per hour to its full-time staff who are aged over 21). 6) The Equal Pay Act, 1970 (stating that pay and working conditions must be equal for employees of the opposite sex who are performing the same work).

7) The Sex Discrimination Act, 1975 (stating that it is illegal to discriminate against an employee or an applicant for a job, on the grounds of their sex or their marital status). 8) The Race Relations Act, 1976 (stating that it is illegal for an employer to discriminate against an employee or an applicant for a job, on the grounds of their ethnic background). 9) The Disability Discrimination Act, 1995 (stating that it is illegal for a business with 20 or more employees to discriminate against an employee, or an applicant for a job, on the grounds of their disability).