Introduction The end of the Cold War and the fall of the Soviet Union did not bring the peace for the world. Many global issues still affect directly our security, like ethnic conflicts, pollution, weapons propagation, overpopulation, and terrorism. Nowadays, terrorism is considered as a most dangerous issue which is treating the humanity. Politically, terrorism is defined as motivated violence and illegitimate use of fighting against civilians by groups of people for political, nationalist, and religious goals.
Terrorism becomes globally phenomenal because there are many sides involved in this issue. This paper will discuss two ways that make terrorism a global issue which are terrorism’s networks and psychological impacts of terrorism. Also, this paper will be examined on real life examples and takes Al-Qaeda as and example of a famous terrorism organization. Brief description of Al-Qaeda and the War Against Terror History of establishing Al-Qaeda Al-Qaeda is an Arabic word which means the base or the foundation. Al-Qaeda is an armed Sunni Islamist organization.
This organization has hundreds to thousands of members; extremist groups Egyptian Islamic Jihad and parts of al-Gama’at al-Islamiyya, the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan and the Harakat ul-Mujahidin also fall under the umbrella of Al-Qaeda. Historically, Al-Qaeda was starting with the group of Arab Mujahideen (fighters) in 1979 during the war between Russia and Afghanistan. Those groups went to Afghanistan to help the Muslims people, who are like them, from Russia occupation. Then, those groups expanding their fighting to different places, such as Bosnia and Sudan.
Since 1989 after the withdrawal of Soviet forces, Osama bin Laden recognized as the group’s leader. In 1998, Bin Laden, Al Zawahiri, and other Islamist leaders issued a fatwa (religious decree) of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders and Muslims who do not pay attention to this call are confirmed apostates. Al-Qaeda’s Goals and Ideologies The goals of Al-Qaeda are to obliterate Israel, expel Westerns, especially Americans, from Islamic lands, and fall pro-Western despotism around the Middle East.
Al-Qaeda wants to destroy America as a specific because America supports Israel against Palestine. That unfair and unjustified attitudes of America, which is considered as most powerful country, create the hatred feeling in Al-Qaeda group. Moreover, Osama bin Laden said that he hopes to reestablish Islamic nation connecting to the rule of the first Caliphas. That means not only US is in dangerous, but the treat seems to loom larger. For example, the triple bombings on May12, 2003 in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, incurred apartment complexes housing Westerners.
This act related to Al-Qaeda and it left 23 people dead, including nine Americans, and that illustrates Al-Qaeda’s strategies and goals. Starting the War Against Terror The war against terror started after Al-Qaeda’s attack on September 11,2001 in United States . The attacks become the most shocking in American history because it caused a very huge costs. The costs are 3,000 people killed, the devastation of four commercial airliners, the disintegration of both World Trade Center Towers, and damaging of the Pentagon. In response, the United States launched different types of forces against terrorism.
On the other hand, Al-Qaeda is not centralized in a specific place which makes them easily to be destroyed, but they have independent cells in more than 50 countries, including Pakistan, Sudan, Yemen, KSA, and USA. According to this fact, President Bush said that the war against terror is a different kind of war, fought on many fronts in many places. Al-Qaeda’s Networks Al-Qaeda is like any other organizations which need financial support to achieve the aims. This organization should work in different fields, mostly illegal fields, to get money and carry their plans.
Moreover, Al-Qaeda must have communication networks to communicate between their collaborative cells which are existing multi states. These two important networks, finance and communication, expend Al-Qaeda’s effects globally. Al-Qaeda’s Financial Networks Al-Qaeda, like all other terrorist organization, needs strong financial support, so Al-Qaeda does not have only one source of money, but it has many sources. According to US 911 Commission Report, Al-Qaeda requires 30,000 USD/year to conduct its operation. Financial resources for Al-Qaeda can increase in both legal and illegal ways.
Al-Qaeda receives money from charities, profitable front-organizations with similar believes and ideologies, and by laundering money from legitimate Muslim organizations. Also, these money can be provided from the members of Qaeda. For example, Osama bin Laden invested millions in terrorism and this is from his billionaires family in Saudi Arabia. His father was a wealthy contractor who renovated the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Some estimates place the terrorist’s worth around $300 million, however, the United States has frozen a large portion of his money.
Another way that Al-Qaeda relies to have money is on organized crime, such as robbery, drug trafficking, and kidnapping. These crimes may incurrence many people in different states in dangerous. Al-Qaeda’s communicated Networks If Al-Qaeda was in 40 years ago, it would face some difficulties in communicated between its different cells which are in different regions in the world. Today, communication technologies have dramatically changed. Websites, e-mails, satellite telephones, mobile phones, and fax transmissions have provided facilities for Al-Qaeda to contemplate a global strategy.
In addition, new communication technologies are not used only in communication, but it use in other things. By using internet, Al-Qaeda members have migrated online to escape detection in an atmosphere of increased international precaution. Moreover, the organiztion’s use of the internet is incresing in recruitment, financing, and publicity. Al-Qaeda has especial websites for this purposes. For example, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi’s, Al-Qaeda movement in Iraq regularly, liberates videos in the wedsites apotheosizing the activity of jihadist suicide bombers. Psychological Impacts of Al-Qaeda.
The attacks of Al-Qaeda are carried out in such a way extend psychological impacts and fear. More than other forms of violence, Al-Qaeda agitates insecurity and deep fear in civilians feeling because terrorists smash randomly without warning innocent civilians. By creating fear, Al-Qaeda wants to show for the civilians the weakness of their governments, which Al-Qaeda thinks that those governments are bad, and how they can not protect their civilians. Also, Al-Qaeda trys to attack national symbols to quake the foundation of the state or to show its power.
Al-Qaeda uses this method when Al-Qaeda attacked the World Trade Center that symmbolizes as Al-Qaeda economic threaten. Globally, all people around the world, Muslimes’ world or Westren world, live in a fear because they await that Al-Qaeda may plan to attack their state because they are westren people or they are in westernization. Conclusion This research paper showed how terrorism is a global issue and gave example of terrorism organization from the life which is Al-Qaeda. Then, it explained Al-Qaeda’s networks and its impacts in civilians’ feelings.
Al-Qaeda’s goals do not concentrate in one point in the world, their goals extent to take the whole world. The main goals for Al-Qaeda is to rebulid an Islamic nation and destroy westernization which is in Muslimes countries. Therefore, Al-Qaeda also attacks Arab and Muslimes countries not only Western countries, but the qustion is why did not Al-Qaeda attack United Arab Emirates, espeacially Dubai, which consided as a westernization country more than the others?! That questions may fetch to another question which is, is realy that Al-Qaeda’s goals is to destroy the westernization from Muslimes’ states or Al-Qaeda has other goals?!
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