State and Different Kinds of States

Essential elements of a state

According to article 1 of Montevideo convention 1933, the state as a person of international law should possess four ingredients:

  • permanent population
  • defined territory
  • a government
  • capacity to enter into relation with other states.

Her essential elements of state are government, permanent population, unity, a defined territory on each a year, approved government, international relations with other states.

Sovereignty of states

Essential elements of sovereignty is “law making power of the sovereign”. Since sovereign makes law, he is not binding by that law. Only sovereign states are entitled to be member of the family of nation. In present time States have entered into many treaties thereby surrendering a part of their sovereignty. For example members of United Nations have accepted many obligations.

Different kinds of state

1. Condominium state

Condominium is a territory where two or more state exercised sovereignty. For example England and France has joint sovereignty over New Hebrides.

2. Vassal states

Vassal states are states, which are autonomous in internal matters but not on external matters. They are under guardianship of their independent state. It has no importance under international law.

3.Protectorate state

A Protectorate state is a state which entrust some of its important function to another Sovereign state but it itself remains sovereign. He remains state under international law. For example Bhutan is protectorate state of India.

Position of Holy See or Vatican City

Holy See is a place where Pope resides. In 1929 there was treaty between Pope and Government of Italy. Vatican City comprising 100 acres of land was accepted as a state and the Pope was accepted as the sovereign of the state. The present position of Vatican City is, it is an independent State under International law.