Staff and patients

The intent of this study is to depict how staff and patients view ward atmosphere, and to establish the extent to which the patient and the staff perceptions of the ward atmosphere in Jordanian psychiatric inpatient units diverge from each other. The previous chapter presented the results of this study according to a non-experimental descriptive design. Chapter 5 illustrated the data analysis that was done for the inferential and statistic data that emerged from the study.

This chapter will depict the discussion of findings from the current study, which examines patients’, nursing staff and patients’ relatives’ perceptions of ward atmosphere in four Jordanian psychiatric hospitals. Since the objective of this study is to portray the participants’ perceptions of ward atmosphere in these four Jordanian facilities, the study examined the perceptions toward the ward atmosphere in Arabic speaking countries, Jordan specifically.

The findings of this study will be discussed in light of existing nursing literature that involved empirical data about the relationship between the perceptions of healthcare providers, patients and patients’ relatives, with demographic and hospital variables. The research questions that directed the focus of this study were the following: Question one How do nurses, patients and patients’ relatives in four Jordanian psychiatric hospitals perceive the Real and Ideal ward atmosphere in all WAS dimensions? Question two How do Real Ward Atmosphere ratings in Jordan compare with the (American) Real WAS norms?

Question three How do demographic variables and other variables affect nurses’, patients’ and patients’ relatives’ perceptions of Real ward atmosphere in all WAS dimensions? Based on the research questions, there were nine significant hypotheses that were formulated, which could be viewed from the previous chapter. See Table 1. Based on the research questions the following hypotheses were formulated. This results chapter first provides an in-depth description and discussion of the implications of the characteristics of the sample based from the related literature and the findings of this study.

Following this, the findings for the hypotheses will be revealed in the same manner that they were presented in the chapter. The implications of the study will be discussed to address each research question. The recommendations from this study will also be thematically discussed to cater to the major research questions of the research. Finally, suggestions for future research will be presented, as well as the final conclusions and remarks about the study. Overview of the Demographical Characteristics The respondents of the study included 267 respondents, wherein 136 were nurses, 104 were patients and 27 were the patients’ relatives.

The sample of the nursing staff that participated in this study worked in psychiatric hospitals from private, governmental and military health sectors in Jordan. Out of 176 target nurses, there was a 77. 2% response rate. The proportion of the male staff members was larger than the female staff members, reflecting the ratio 60/40 ratio of the graduating students in Jordan (JNMC, 2009). The education attainment of the population ranged from lower than secondary level to a Bachelor’s degree in nursing. About 58. 10% of the nurses had a diploma and 39.

7% had a bachelor’s degree in nursing. None of them were reported to be post-graduate degree holders, while two of the nurses had lower than secondary level qualification and one had a secondary level education. The range of the number of years of experience within the hospital they were currently employed in was from one to 22 years, with an average period of five years. There were 186 patients, but there was only a 55. 9% response rate with 104 patients that fulfilled the inclusion criteria and completed the questionnaires.

Out of the respondents, 86 were male and 18 were females. They had an average age of 35 years old, from the range of 20 to 60 years old. According to the data gathered from the patients, the most prevalent diagnosis was addiction, followed by schizophrenia, and depression. There was one patient that had a missing diagnosis. Basing on the distribution of psychiatric diagnosis for the total population of the patients across the different Jordanian hospitals, the patients that completed the WAS questionnaire made up representative sample of the total patient population in the study.

The average length of stay for the patients was 2. 26 months, ranging from 1 to 21 months. More than half of the patients were voluntarily admitted, while other people, such as their family or the police, brought in 43. 80%. About 50 members of the patients’ relatives were invited to participate in the study and 54% was the response rate, a significant representation for the total population of patients’ relatives. There were 19 male respondents and 8 female respondents from the sample of patients’ relatives.

The average age of the patients’ relatives was 43 years old, from the range of 20 to 67 years of age. About 66. 70% of the patients’ relatives visited them weekly, while 33. 33% visited patients monthly. Majority of the patients’ relatives were brothers, 40. 70%, while others were fathers with 37. 08% and there were some that were sons, wives or friends with 7. 4% for each of these relationships. Barakat (1993) noted that the Jordanian society was a male-dominated one, which explained why people preferred for male relatives to participate in the study, over females.