This is the deliberate and planned breach of policy or law by an individual or group of people. It is usually done peacefully to highlight how inappropriate a law is and promote the need for a change in the law. Civil disobedience was a common tool in the black civil rights movement in the USA in the 1960s. Black people would deliberately break the racial segregation laws to show how deeply unfair they were and how much the law needed to change. A good example of this is the case of Rosa Parks, who in December 1955 refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man when asked to do so.
She was arrested and her arrest sparked a chain of events which led to the US Supreme Court decision in 1956 that racial segregation on transportation was illegal. Demonstration and meetings, Meetings to discuss problems with government policy are very common. They are a way for like-minded individuals to air their concerns. Meeting can be held outside and include a march or demonstration to show the government or local authority the depth of public feeling against decision. A good example of this would be the rallies and protests organised by the Countryside Alliance since the UK government placed a ban on foxhunting.
Terrorism, Terrorism is an extreme response to public policy. It involves an individual or group using violence or the threat of violence against civilian and military targets in order to force the government to change its policy. It is usually the last resort of a group which has already tried civil disobedience and demonstration to no effect. Governments do not respond well to terrorism, many have a policy of not negotiating with terrorists under any circumstances. A good example of this in the UK was the situation in Northern Ireland in the second half of the twentieth century.
Loyalist and Republican terrorist groups were active in Northern Ireland and on the UK mainland, with great cost to civilian and military life and property. One of the worst atrocities committed was the Omagh bombing in 1998 which killed 29 people. Picketing, Picketing is when striking workers gather together outside their place of work. This is a common way of employees showing their unhappiness with a policy decision made on national or local issues, the focus is usually pay, redundancies or working conditions. The Fire Service strikes in 2002 are one example.