Scientific Method: The step-by-step process in which science seeks answers to questions. Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a testable statement seeking to explain something about the natural world. Formally stated as an If…then statement. Observation: Information gathered using your senses. Properties: The appearance, color, shape, odor, size, weight, texture, hardness and sound of a substance. Experiment: A series of carefully planned steps that tests a hypothesis. Variable: The condition being tested or changed in an experiment. Control: The part of an experiment held constant, compared against the variable.
Conclusion: A judgment about your hypothesis following an experiment. Prediction: Stating what you think might happen in the future. Fact: An observation that has been confirmed over and over. Not often used in science – they change too often! Technology: The application of science to solve problems and make new inventions. Earth Science: The study of the earth and its rocks, oceans, volcanoes, atmosphere and other features. Physical Science: The study of matter and energy. Chemistry explores matter and the changes it undergoes.
Physics studies forms of energy such as light and heat. Refine: To improve upon. Theory: An explanation of some feature of the natural world that can include facts, laws, and tested hypotheses. A theory makes predictions about future observations. Law: Descriptions of how the physical world behaves under certain circumstances. Theories do NOT become Laws, and Laws did NOT start as Theories! Definitions of theory, law, fact, and hypothesis adapted from the National Academy of Sciences Vocabulary related to society This is a list of vocabulary items related to society Society
A society is a population of humans characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive culture and/or institutions. More broadly, a society is an economic, social and industrial infrastructure, in which a varied multitude of people are a part of. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. Antisocial Antisocial (against society) is often used in colloquial speech to mean unfriendly or not sociable (asocial). In scientific use, antisocialrefers more specifically to a person who is harmful or hostile to others, or to society in general.
Social exclusion Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. It is often connected to a person’s social class, educational status, relationships in childhood and living standards and how these might affect access to various opportunities. It also applies to some degree to people with a disability, to minority men and women of all races, to the elderly, and to youth (Youth Exclusion). Anyone who deviates in any perceived way from the norm of a population may become subject to coarse or subtle forms of social exclusion.
Here are some definitions of Social exclusion : “Social exclusion is about the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as a society… [or] to realize their full potential. ” “Whatever the content and criteria of social membership, socially excluded groups and individuals lack capacity or access to social opportunity. Social class Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. People may be part of lower, middle or higher classes.
Minority A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant voting majority of the total population of a given society. A minority group can be defined as: “a group of people who, because of their physical or cultural characteristics, are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for differential and unequal treatment, and who therefore regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. ” Examples of minority groups include emigrants, blacks, …
Social solidarity Social solidarity refers to the integration, and degree and type of integration, shown by a society or group. Association A voluntary association or union (also sometimes called a voluntary organization, unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose for the good ofsociety. Examples of association include associations for the defense of human rights, minorities, the disabled …
Multicultural Society A society in which there is a cultural diversity. Health care Health care, or healthcare, is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of health through services offered by the medical, dental, nursing, and allied health professions. Health care embraces all the goods and services designed to promote health, including “preventive, curative and palliative interventions, whether directed to individuals or to populations”. Voluntary work
Voluntary work is done by volunteers for the benefit of a community or society. A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment primarily because they choose to do so. Volunteers do not normally get paid. Homelessness Homelessness is the condition and social category of people who lack housing, because they cannot afford, or are otherwise unable to maintain, regular, safe, and adequate shelter. People who are part of this social category are called homeless people. Poverty
Poverty is the deprivation of common necessities such as food, clothing, shelter and safe drinking water, all of which determine our quality of life. It may also include the lack of access to opportunities such as education and employment which aid the escape from poverty and/or allow one to enjoy the respect of fellow citizens. Citizenship Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen.
Gender Roles A gender role is defined as a set of perceived behavioral norms associated particularly with males or females, in a given social group or system. It can be a form of division of labor by gender. Domestic violence Domestic violence (also known as domestic abuse or spousal abuse) occurs when a family member, partner or ex-partner attempts to physically or psychologically dominate another. Domestic violence often refers to violence between spouses, or spousal abuse but can also include cohabitants and non-married intimate partners.