“Roman Civilization”

All important source of our occidental civilization comes from the roman culture. The Roman Empire in its splendor signified a basic event in history. Its extension and diversity hasn’t had any comparison until the present United States. To accomplish this heroic deed it was necessary to obtain certain characteristics of the spirit and attitude of the romans. Their tolerance, malleability and practical sense was which made them respond to the circumstances in such manner which constituted the essence of the empire.

Their own practical spirit derived them to conduct excellent routes, facilitated the communication and established laws that until today are reasons of inspiration. These remarkable events led to reach human rights and contributed to the concern of the duration of the human life. Romans face a lot of dilemmas and drew a lot of attention to problems which led to different aspects: political, social, psychological and demographic medium. The outstanding level reached by the Human Rights, constitutes the care for the duration of human life. Roman civilizaton was an urban and uniforme culture.

Rome was a large city which was divided in network of cites. Town and and provinces were founded given grant to Roman soldiers upon their retairment from the army. Little by little the small city started to grow and became an Imperio, therefore, it is important to undersatand it’s government. The Roman monarchy was the first form of political goverment of the city of Rome. The Romans constructed a form of political organization. The educational system was also very important for evolution of Rome in the manner that citizens were educated and contributed to the political growth. CITY DEVELOPMENT.

In the second half of the fith century B. C. Rome was an aristocrat republica of agricultural workers. Rome occupied an approximate total surface of 450 square miles and had a free population, distributed around the country side divided into distinct rustic tribes. The majority of families owned small farms. Neighboring sites own animal farms, in their own homes which constituted the instruments to elaborate clothing and only in the afternoon atended to the fortify city. In the city there were temples of Gods, the Government of the Republica, the patrician “rich people” houses, the artisans stores and merchandisers.

In these stores exchanges of goods, foods and other took place. Their political organization contituted a king, who governeded the reign along with the senate, and popular assembles. People also attended to the city to celebrate religion cults and to obey civic rights. The proprietaries were divided into five classes base on fortune of each class, each proprietarian was divided into centurio: each proprietary attended to vote, this manner proprietaries took part to the approval of law in the elections of the first judge or magistrate of the Republica. CIVIC EVALUTION.

Although the magistrate were elected, Rome became a doubly aristocrat republica. Nevertheless, the centuries ascended from the belonging of the poor to the rich people, it contained electives less restricted. Moreover, the high magistrates left reserved for his heritage privilege to few number of patrician families that possessed more lands, farm animals and more slaves. The Romans lived and developed stages with in their civic evolution. Institutional, was the beginning stage, the first political step, composed of diversity of events; one of the principal events was the crusades the time of political changes and expansion.

The Roman Imperium became in paradigm of the imperial power and control of Rome and other cities. This contributed to industrial development, political transformation and other changes. The following is a brief description of la roman political evolution which has their own characteristics that has contributed to our present world. a. The Monarchy: The origin of Rome is the Monarchy which began with Romulo, Numan Pompilio, Tuio Hostilio, Anco Marcio and the Etruscan Tarquino Prisco, Servio Tulio and the las king Tarquino the arrogant of the seven kings or Rome.

The majority of the kings coincide, and also have the same opinions of expansion and growth of Rome. Monarchy was commanded by a kind and was assisted and advised by the Senate, a group of aristocrats that have special privileges because they were land holders. To summarize this stage Rome established power. During the stage appeared the Senate, institution of great importance for Rome. It’s also important to mention that during the period Rome founded the seven hills, Capitolino, Palatino, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquilino, Celio and Aventino, which contributed to the expansion, economic, political and military growth.

b. Republica: The “de Res Publica” or Republican Institution, the last stage which was governed by Octavio Augusto, were the title of Imrerator and prince would come to an end. This period became famus due to the domination to the Italica Peninsula, the consolidation of magistrates and administration of territory. The pricipal regime of govern in Rome during the Republica were the Senate and Consuls. It is also important to hightligh that during the political evolution, political institutions were created.

During the middle of the Republica era, buildings related to political institutions were created such as the senate house, a platform from which speakers addressed crowds of citizens in the forum and an office to house important public record. IMPERIAL ROME The period of Ceasar Augusto was a period of prosperity. He was responsible for changing the city of Rome. According to Gegory Andrete one of his famous quotations “I found the city made of brick and left it made of marble” which in fact holds a good deal of truth.

Augusto one of the roman governators did not abuse his great power, but, let the military benefit from it. He established a honest and effective administration. Divided the empire into senatorial provinces. Augusto oposed to the exploitatiom of the provinces and contributed to it is material and cultura growth. He reformed and regulated the Roman system taxation, developed a network roads and builted aquadults. For means of entertainment he built amphitheaters, theaters, 5 monumental stadiums and the Roman coliseum.

Augusto divided the city in 14 districts and named it 14 Augustan regions. He re-builded the entire city that was damaged during the civil wars. He used modern architecture to build buildings, temples, infrastructures, aqueducts and sewers. Augusto did not only renovate the city but also build and created structures that were intended to praise himself. Some of his works were the Campus of Martius , Ara Pacis (altar of peace) and the horologium. Emperors afer August continued building and expanding the city. PEOPLE OF ANCIENT ROME.

Rome was dominated by man. The families constututed for adults, children and slaves and this power give him unlimited authority to control family lives. Woman did not have equivalent legal status with men, but Roman mothers were still expected to be strong figures with in the household. Moreover Rome admitted populations from all origins, but there were not enough women, which instigated to conflicts. Patricians were the high class, land owners, the first families who installed the city, they had exclusive privileges and intevined in the government.

The son’s of senators and free plebeian families formed part of a special order inter-median between the nobility and the plebeians. The elected plebian reunited with each district to discuss particular interests; each year they named a representative for the town to discuss particular interests. The centurios did not vote for certain inferior magisters but the tribes did, this is, all that were subscribed in the sixteen rural tribes, however, the power resided in the patricians, who were also farmers. .

Plebeians: The midle and low class, farmers, slaves and working people. Slaves: The prisioners of war, that serve patrician families. GOVERN EN T OF ANCIENT ROME Citizenship: CONCLUSION: References Aldrete, Gregory. (204). Hystory of Ancien Rome . In Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia. (1st ed. ). (pp. 7, 21). West Port , CT: Greenwood Press. Cunningham, Lawrence & Reich, John J. (2002). Roman Legacy. In Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. (5th ed. ). (p. 87). Boston, MA, MA: Wadsworth Thompson Learning Karl-J, Holkeskamp.

(2010). Conceps of Political Culture: The benefits of Theory. In Reconstructing the Roman Republic: An Ancient Political Culture and Modern Research . (2nd ed. ). (p. 53). New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Malamud, Margaret. (2009). Exemplary Romans in the Early Republic. In Ancient Rome and Modern America. (1st ed. ). (pp. 9, 33). West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Peachin, Michael. (Ed. ). (2011). Law and Social Formation for Roman Empire. In Social Relations in the Roman World. (pp. 144, 161). New York, New York: Oxford UniversityPress, INC.