I. Historical Background Croatia first appeared as a duchy in the late 8th century and then as a kingdom in the 10th century. From the 12th century it remained a distinct state with its ruler (ban) and parliament, but it obeyed the kings and emperors of various neighboring powers, primarily Hungary and Austria. The period from the 15th to the 17th centuries was marked by bitter struggles with the Ottoman Empire. After being incorporated in Yugoslavia for most of the 20th century, Croatia regained independence in 1991. First president: Dr. Franco Tudman (1922-1999).
Present President:Ivo Josipovic Continent: Europe Government:Presidential / Parliamentary Democracy Land Area:21, 781 sq. mi. (56, 414 sq. km. ) Population:4, 480, 043 Capital: Zagreb Source of Livelihood: Currency:Kuna Official Languages:Croatian, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, Venetian II. Law Enforcement Set-Up / Administration Law enforcement in Croatia is the responsibility of the Police (Croatian: Policija), which is a public service of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Croatia, carrying out certain tasks, the so-called, police activities, laid down by law.
The Police deals with the following affairs: protection of individual life, rights, security and integrity, protection of property, prevention and detection of criminal offences, misdemeanors, violations, search for perpetrators of criminal offences, misdemeanors, violations and their bringing before competent authorities, control and management of road traffic, conducting affairs with aliens, control and security of state border, and other affairs defined by law.
In the operative sense, police affairs are divided into affairs related to public peace and order, affairs related to security of public gatherings, affairs of the border police, affairs of safety of road traffic, affairs of counter-explosive protection, affairs of the criminal police, crime-technical affairs, crime-files affairs, administrative affairs, nationality-related affairs, status questions and asylum, affairs of protection and rescue, inspection affairs and technical affairs. In recent years, the force has been undergoing a reform with assistance from international agencies, including the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe since its mission began there on 18 April 1996, with Croatia being admitted to OSCE on March 24, 1992.
III. Judicial System The judicial system is comprised of municipal and county courts, a Supreme Court, an Administrative Court, and a Constitutional Court. A High Judicial Council (made up of 11 members serving eight-year terms) appoints judges and public prosecutors. The judicial system, supervised by the justice and administration ministry, remains subject to ethnic bias and political influence, especially at the local level. Judges are prohibited constitutionally from being members of any political party.
A commercial court system handles all commercial and contractual disputes. The Supreme Court judges are appointed for an eight-year term by the Judicial Council. The Constitutional Court has 13 judges (11 prior to March 2001) who are also elected in the same manner. The military court system was abolished in November 1996. The constitution prohibits the arbitrary interference with privacy, family, home or correspondence, but these freedoms are not always protected by the government. Regular Police ranks •Police Director (Ravnatelj policije) •Deputy Police Director (Zamjenik ravnatelja policije).
•Major Police advisor (Glavni policijski savjetnik) •Police advisor (Policijski savjetnik) •Major Police inspector (Glavni policijski inspektor) •Independent Police inspector (Samostalni policijski inspektor) •Upper Police inspector (Visi policijski inspektor) •Police inspector (Policijski inspektor) •Upper Police sergeant (Visi policijski narednik) •Police sergeant (Policijski narednik) •Upper Police officer (Visi policajac) •Police officer (Policajac) •Probationer with college (Vjezbenik vise i visoke strucne spreme) •Probationer with secondary school (Vjezbenik Srednje Strucne Spreme) Special Intervention Police ranks.
•Commander of intervention Police (Zapovjednik interventne policije) •Deputy of commander of intervention Police (Pomocnik zapovjednika interventne policije) •Instructor in headquarters of intervention Police (Instruktor u zapovjednistvu interventne policije) •Commander of intervention Police unit (Zapovjednik jedinice interventne policije) •Deputy of commander of intervention Police unit (Zamjenik zapovjednika jedinice interventne policije) •Commander of troop in intervention Police (Zapovjednik satnije) •Deputy of commander of troop in intervention Police (Pomocnik zapovjednika satnije).
•Commander of platoon in intervention Police - instructor (Zapovjednik voda- instruktor) •Commander of section in intervention Police(Zapovjednik odjeljenja) •Leader of intervention group (Voda interventne grupe) •Police officer in intervention group (Interventni policajac) IV. Conclusion Though Croatia has a lesser part in terms of land area and population, it doesn’t have any technical shortage with regards to their Judicial System and Law Enforcement. Croatia tends to manage the duties, responsibilities and regulation that should be established in order to preserve peace, order and progress.