The Project Management Process is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. It is a set of interrelated action and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service. The Project Management Process is grouped into five categories which are:
The Initiating Process Group involves the processes, activities, and skills needed to effectively define the beginning of a project. Setting all permits, authorizations, and initial work order in place to secure an effective and logical progression of initial project activities sets the stage for subsequent success throughout all phases.
Setting clear phases for work to be completed, initializing teams, and having the budget in place before work begins are vital for a strong start to any project across industry. The Initiating Process Group involves these main interrelated components: developing a project charter and identifying stakeholders.
The Planning Process Group sets forth the processes needed to define the scope of the project, set strategic plans in place to maximize work flow, and begin to assemble priority lists and plan team needs. This process group also addresses a more narrow clarification of all project goals and expectations and puts in place the project infrastructure necessary to achieve those goals according to timeline and budgetary constraints.
There are key elements included in the Planning Process Group: develop a project management plan, collect requirements, define scope, create work breakdown, define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity resources, estimate activity durations, develop schedule, estimate cost, determine budget, plan quality, develop human resource plan, plan communications, plan risk management, identify risk, perform qualitative and quantitative risk analysis, plan risk response, and plan procurements.
The Executing Process Group is the place where the project management put the project management plan into action mode and makes things really happening. Project management works with project team to achieve the project objectives. It tracks the project plan to ensure the future execution of project plans stays in line whit project objectives.
The Executing Process Group will utilize the most project time and resources, and as a result, costs are usually highest during the executing process. Project management faces more conflicts, issues in this process group. The Executing Process Group entails the following core task: direct and manage project work, perform quality assurance, acquire project team, develop project team, manage project team, manage communications, and conduct procurements.
The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group is where project performances measurements are taken, analyzed and determine the project progress is align whit the project plan. This will assist to identify the issues and problems and take corrective actions to meet the project objectives. While taking corrective actions, the project management may re-visit to the earlier process groups such as planning executing.
The objectives of the Monitoring and Controlling the project are: measure project performance, verify and manage changes to the project, ensure project deliverables conform to quality standard, and monitor all risk. There are processes required to track, review and regulate the progress and performance of the project that are: monitor and control project work, perform integrated change control, verify scope, control scope, control schedule, control cost, perform quality control, report performance, monitor and control risk, and administer procurements.
Closing Process Group is an officially closing the project by getting formal approval, acceptance from the project sponsor and stakeholders. Secure and store all documents related to the project. Document the lesson learned, issues and store for future referrals, and it states that the project is ready to move to next phase which is usually the operational phase.
The objectives of the Closing Project Group are: obtain final acceptance for the project, obtain financial, legal, and administrative closure, release project resources, identify documents and communicate lessons learned, create and distribute final project report, archive and retain project records, and measure customer satisfaction.
Before a project starts the project manager must make sure the project goals, determine the scope, time, and cost constraints for the project, identify the project sponsor, select the project manager, develop a business case for the project, meet with the project manager to review the process and expectations for managing the project, and determine if the project should be divided into two or more smaller projects. This must be communicated to all the stakeholders to get their agreement. Any differences of opinion must be resolved before work starts.
To conclude, if a project management follows these five processes will have better control of financial, physical, and human resources, improved customer relations, shorter development time, lower cost, higher quality and increased reliability, higher margins, improved productivity, better internal coordination, and higher worker morale.
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