A Project on Apple Inc.

Just as KBC turned the corners for Amitabh Bachchan at a time when he was financially in a big mess and his prestigious bungalow at Juhu, mortgaged to his bankers, was on the verge of going under the hammer, the launch of a small gadget turned the corners for Apple Inc. Today Apple Inc. is known by the world as the company which gave it the iPod, followed by the iPhone. Both these gadgets have been lapped up by millions of music lovers and mobile users around the word. Little do these youngsters know that manufacturing iPods and iPhones is not the main business of Apple Inc. It is computers.

In 1984, Apple was the first to launch a computer with a revolutionary mouse-driven graphical user interface (GUI). It was called the “Macintosh”. The operating system was called “Mac OS”. It was much later, that Microsoft followed the footsteps of Apple and launched its Microsoft Windows OS. It may sound surprising but is a known fact the world over, that Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, and an arch rival of Apple Inc. , was a great admirer of Apple Macintosh computers. In his early days he had once made his views public. He said, “To create a new standard it takes something that’s not just a little bit different.

It takes something that’s really new and really captures peoples’ imagination. And the Macintosh, of all the machines I have ever seen, is the only one that meets that standard. ” I am myself a great admirer of Apple Computers. There is an ease of operation, it is free from any fear of viruses, and most importantly, it doesn’t CRASH like any PC. My Dad purchased the iMac way back in 1998. Today it continues to function as effectively. It is rather sad that Apple computers were commercially unsuccessful. Perhaps, it was because of Apple’s unwillingness to licence its Mac OS to other hardware manufacturers.

Today PCs with Microsoft windows are manufactured by hundreds of companies. But ask for a Mac OS based computer. Only Apple manufactures it. As said earlier, Apple has just turned the corners and is looking ahead into the future with some great ideas. The project assignment for me couldn’t have been anything else, but Apple. -Saarthak Verma. 19th February 2009. . [pic] Introduction A pple Inc. , formerly Apple Computer, Inc. , is an American multinational corporation which designs and manufactures consumer electronics and software products.

The company’s best-known hardware products include Macintosh computers, the iPod and the iPhone. Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system, the iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, the iWork suite of productivity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio- and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 250 retail stores in nine countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold. Established in Cupertino, California on April 1, 1976 and incorporated January 3, 1977, the company was called “Apple Computer, Inc.

” for its first 30 years, but dropped the word “Computer” on January 9, 2007 to reflect the company’s ongoing expansion into the consumer electronics market in addition to its traditional focus on personal computers. Apple has about 35,000 employees worldwide and had worldwide annual sales of US$32. 48 billion in its fiscal year ending September 29, 2008. For reasons as various as its philosophy of comprehensive aesthetic design to its distinctive advertising campaigns, Apple has established a unique reputation in the consumer electronics industry.

This includes a customer base that is devoted to the company and its brand, particularly in the United States. In 2008, Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States. Steve Jobs, the CEO of Apple Inc. Steven Paul Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is the American co-founder, Chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. and the former CEO of Pixar Animation Studios. In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, created one of the first commercially successful personal computers. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of the mouse-driven graphical user interface.

After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher education and business markets. NeXT’s subsequent 1997 buyout by Apple Computer Inc. brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he has served as its CEO since then. Steve Jobs was listed as Fortune Magazine’s Most Powerful Businessman of 2007. In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd which was spun off as Pixar Animation Studios. He remained CEOand majority shareholder until its acquisition by the Walt Disney Company in 2006.

Jobs is currently the Walt Disney Company’s largest individual shareholder and a member of its Board of Directors. He is considered a leading figure in both the computer and entertainment industries. Jobs’ history in business has contributed greatly to the myths of the idiosyncratic, individualistic Silicon Valley entrepreneur, emphasizing the importance of design and understanding the crucial role aesthetics play in public appeal. His work driving forward the development of products that are both functional and elegant has earned him a devoted following. Jobs is currently on a leave of absence from Apple due to health issues.

A Look at the History pages… 1976–1980: The early years The Apple I, Apple’s first product was sold as an assembled circuit board, it lacked basic features such as a keyboard, monitor, and case. The owner of this unit added a keyboard and a wooden case. Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne, to sell the Apple I personal computer kit. They were hand-built by Wozniak and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips)—less than what is today considered a complete personal computer.

The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666. 66. Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800. Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because it came with color graphics and an open architecture.

While early models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface, the Disk II. The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first “killer app” of the business world—the VisiCalc spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II, and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II—compatibility with the office. According to Brian Bagnall, Apple exaggerated its sales figures and was a distant third place to Commodore and Tandy until VisiCalc came along.

By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line. The Apple II was succeeded by the Apple III in May 1980 as the company competed with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market. Jobs and several Apple employees including Jef Raskin visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto. Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for $1 million in pre-IPO Apple stock. Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a GUI, and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa.

1981–1985: The First Macintosh Computer & The Power Struggle Steve Jobs began working on the Apple Lisa in 1978 but in 1982 he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting, and took over Jef Raskin’s low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh. A turf war broke out between Lisa’s “corporate shirts” and Jobs’ “pirates” over which product would ship first and save Apple. Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles.

In 1984, Apple next launched the Macintosh. Its debut was announced by the now famous $1. 5 million television commercial, “1984”. It was directed by Ridley Scott, aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984, and is now considered a watershed event for Apple’s success and a masterpiece. The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong. [34] The machine’s fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be offered at a reasonable price point, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package.

The Mac was particularly powerful in this market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which were already necessarily built-in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI. It has been suggested that the combination of these three products was responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market. With continued strong sales of the Apple II, and the introduction of the Macintosh, Apple’s sales reached new highs and the company had its initial public offering on September 7, 1984. A power struggle developed between Jobs and new CEO John Sculley in 1985.

Apple’s board of directors sided with Sculley and Jobs was removed from his managerial duties. Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc. the same year. Apple’s sustained growth during the early 1980s was partly due to its leadership in the education sector, attributed to their adaptation of the programming language LOGO, used in many schools with the Apple II. The drive into education was accentuated in California with the donation of one Apple II and one Apple LOGO software package to each public school in the state. 1986–1993: Rise and fall The Macintosh Portable was Apple’s first “portable” Macintosh computer, released in 1989.

Having learned several painful lessons after introducing the bulky Macintosh Portable in 1989, Apple introduced the PowerBook in 1991, which established the modern form and ergonomic layout of the laptop computer. The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities. It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001. The success of the PowerBook and other products led to increasing revenue. For some time, it appeared that Apple could do no wrong, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process.

The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the “first golden age” of the Macintosh. Following the success of the LC, Apple introduced the Centris line, a low end Quadra offering, and the ill-fated Performa line which was sold in several confusing configurations and software bundles to avoid competing with the various consumer outlets such as Sears, Price Club, and Wal-Mart, the primary dealers for these models. The end result was disastrous for Apple as consumers did not understand the difference between models.

During this time Apple experimented with a number of other failed consumer targeted products including digital cameras, portable CD audio players,speakers, video consoles, and TV appliances. Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts. Ultimately, all of this proved be too-little-too-late for Apple as their market share and stock prices continued to slide. Apple saw the Apple II family as too expensive to produce, while taking away sales from the low end Macintosh.

In 1990 Apple released the Macintosh LC with a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform. Apple stopped selling the Apple IIe in 1993. Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows, focusing on delivering software with cheap commodity PCs while Apple was delivering a richly engineered, but expensive, experience. Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response. Instead they sued Microsoft for using a graphical user interface similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc. v.

Microsoft Corporation. The lawsuit dragged on for years before being thrown out of court. At the same time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines destroyed Apple’s reputation and Sculley was replaced by Michael Spindler. 1994–1997: Attempts at reinvention The Newton was Apple’s first foray into the PDA markets, as well as one of the first in the industry. A financial flop, it helped pave the way for the Palm Pilot and Apple’s own iPhone in the future. By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as the A/UX.

The Macintosh platform was becoming outdated since it was not built for multitasking, and several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware. In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors like Sun Microsystems. The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform, or reworked to run on more powerful hardware. In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance. The goal was to create a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple’s software.

The AIM alliance hoped that PReP’s performance and Apple’s software would leave the PC far behind, thus countering Microsoft. The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use IBM’s PowerPC processor. In 1996, Michael Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO. Gil Amelio made many changes at Apple, including massive layoffs. After multiple failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project, then later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system, bringing Steve Jobs back to Apple as an advisor.

On July 9, 1997, Gil Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses. Jobs became the interim CEO and began restructuring the company’s product line. At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock. On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Store, tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy. 1998–2005: New beginnings

The Company headquarters on Infinite Loop in Cupertino, California. On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac. The iMac design team was led byJonathan Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone. The iMac featured current technology and a groundbreaking design. It sold close to 800,000 units in its first five months and returned Apple to profitability for the first time since 1993. Through this period, Apple purchased several companies to create a portfolio of professional and consumer-oriented digital production software.

In 1998, Apple announced the purchase of Macromedia’s Final Cut software, signaling its expansion into the digital video editing market. The following year, Apple released two video editing products: iMovie for consumers, and Final Cut Pro for professionals, the latter of which has gone on to be a significant video-editing program, with 800,000 registered users in early 2007. In 2002 Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake, as well as Emagic for their music productivity application Logic, which led to the development of their consumer-level GarageBand application.

iPhoto’s release the same year completed the iLife suite. Mac OS X, based on NeXT’s OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was released on March 24, 2001, after several years of development. Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface. To aid users in migrating fromMac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications through Mac OS X’s Classic environment. The entrance of the Apple Store on Fifth Avenue in New York City is a glass

cube, housing a cylindrical elevator and a spiral staircase that leads into the subterranean store. On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California. The same year, Apple introduced the iPod portable digital audio player. The product was phenomenally successful — over 100 million units were sold within six years. In 2003, Apple’s iTunes Storewas introduced, offering online music downloads for $0. 99 a song and integration with the iPod. The service quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008.

Since 2001 Apple’s design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3. This began with thetitanium PowerBook and was followed by the white polycarbonate iBook and the flat-panel iMac. 2005–present: The Intel partnership The MacBook Pro (15. 4″ widescreen) was Apple’s first laptop with an Intel microprocessor. It was announced in January 2006 and is aimed at the professional market. At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006.

On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to utilize Intel’s Core Duo CPU. By August 7, 2006 Apple had transitioned the entire Mac product line to Intel chips, over 1 year sooner than announced. The Power Mac, iBook, and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition, the Mac Pro, MacBook, and Macbook Pro became their respective successors. Apple also introduced Boot Camp to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X. Apple’s success during this period was evident in its stock price.

Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple’s stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80. In January 2006, Apple’s market cap surpassed that of Dell. Nine years prior, Dell’s CEO Michael Dell said that if he ran Apple he would “shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. ” Delivering his keynote at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Steve Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc. would from that point on be known as Apple Inc. The event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV.

The following day, Apple shares hit $97. 80, an all-time high. In May, Apple’s share price passed the $100 mark. On February 7, 2007, Apple indicated that it would sell music on the iTunes Store without DRM (which would allow tracks to be played on third-party players) if record labels would agree to drop the technology. On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI’s catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May. On July 11, 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch.

Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and brought in $1 million daily on average, with Steve Jobs speculating that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple. On December 16, 2008, Apple announced 2009 would be the last year Apple would be attending the Macworld Expo, and that Phil Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote in lieu of the expected Steve Jobs. On January 14, 2009, an internal Apple memo from Steve Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month leave of absence, until the end of June 2009, to allow him to better focus on his health and to allow the company to better focus on its products.

[pic] The Company offers a range of personal computing products including desktop and portable personal computers, related devices and peripherals, and various third-party hardware and software products. In addition, the Company offers its own software products, including Mac OS X, the Company’s proprietary operating system software for the Mac; server software and related solutions; professional application software; and consumer, education, and business oriented application software.

The Company also designs, develops, and markets to Mac and Windows users its family of iPod digital music players and its iPhone mobile communication device, along with related accessories and services, including the online distribution of third-party content through the Company’s iTunes Store. The Company’s primary products are discussed below. Hardware Products The Company offers a range of personal computing products including desktop and notebook computers, server and storage products, related devices and peripherals, and various third-party hardware products.

The Company’s Mac desktop and portable systems feature Intel microprocessors, the Company’s Mac OS X Version 10. 5 Leopard® (“Mac OS X Leopard”) operating system and iLife® suite of software for creation and management of digital photography, music, movies, DVDs, and website. MacBook® Pro The MacBook Pro family of notebook computers is designed for professionals and advanced consumer users. First introduced in January 2006, the MacBook Pro includes a 15-inch or 17-inch widescreen display, a built-in iSight® video camera, and the MagSafe® magnetic power adapter.

In October 2008, the Company redesigned its 15-inch MacBook Pro models to include a widescreen light-emitting diode (“LED”) display, the latest Intel Core 2 Duo processors running at up to 2. 8GHz, and a new Nvidia GeForce 9600M graphics processor. The 15-inch MacBook Pro includes up to 4GB of 1066MHz synchronous dynamic random access memory (“SDRAM”) with a 1066MHz frontside bus, up to a 320GB hard drive, a slot-loading double-layer SuperDrive®, a glass trackpad with Multi-TouchTM gesture support, AirPort Extreme® 802. 11n wireless networking, and Bluetooth 2.

1. In addition, the Company updated its 17-inch MacBook Pro models to include larger hard drives of up to 320GB, as well as an optional 128GB solid state drive. MacBook® The MacBook is designed for consumer and education users. First introduced in May 2006, the MacBook includes a 13-inch widescreen display, a built-in iSight video camera, and the MagSafe magnetic power adapter. In October 2008, the Company introduced new MacBook models with all-metal unibody enclosures, LED-backlit glossy widescreen displays, Intel Core 2 Duo processors running at up to 2.

4GHz, NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor, support for up to 4GB of 1066MHz SDRAM memory, up to 320GB Serial ATA hard drive, a double-layer SuperDrive, a glass trackpad with Multi-TouchTM gesture support, and built-in AirPort Extreme 802. 11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2. 1. MacBook Air™ [pic] In October 2008, the Company updated its MacBook Air, an ultra-slim notebook computer that measures 0. 16inches at its thinnest point and 0. 76-inches at its maximum height. The new MacBook Air includes an Intel Core 2 Duo processor running at up to 1.

86GHz with 6MB of Level 2 cache, an NVIDIA GeForce 9400M graphics processor, 2GB of memory, and a 120GB hard drive. The MacBook Air includes a 13. 3-inch LED-backlit widescreen display, a full-size backlit keyboard, a built-in iSight video camera, a trackpad with Multi-Touch gesture support, and built-in AirPort Extreme 802. 11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2. 1. Mac® Pro The Mac Pro desktop computer is targeted at business and professional users and is designed to meet the performance, expansion, and networking needs of the most demanding Mac user.

In January 2008, the Company introduced the new Mac Pro featuring up to two Intel Quad-Core Xeon processors running at up to 3. 2GHz, 12MB of Level 2 cache per processor and dual-independent 1. 6GHz front-side buses and up to 32GB of 800MHz fully buffered memory. The Mac Pro also features a direct attach storage, solution for snap-in installation of up to four 1TB hard drives for a total of 4TB of internal storage and optional AirPort Extreme 802. 11n wireless networking and Bluetooth 2.

0. iMac® The iMac desktop computer is targeted at consumer, education and business customers. In April 2008, the Company updated the iMac to include Intel Core 2 Duo processors running at up to 3. 06GHz, up to 4GB of 800MHz SDRAM memory, a faster graphics card option using NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GS graphics, and a slot-loading double-layer SuperDrive. All iMac models also include a built-in iSight video camera, AirPort Extreme 802. 11n wireless networking, and Bluetooth 2. 1.