Conservatism is about freedom. However, the problem is how conservatism will pass on freedom to its subjects in the society. It is constantly changing as time moves. For example, in the 18th century, freedom meant the formation of an alliance by the business class and the traditional social authorities. However, in reality the business class only hoped the freedom to be a shift from one kind of government intervention in the economy to another, as opposed to the lower social class, which hoped for equality in treatment.
This is a clear implication that unless the common man internalizes the aristocratic domination, then freedom will remain to be vocabulary to him. Indeed, many opposers of conservatism have argued that it is not possible to gain freedom at all. It has been argued that without the internalized domination of conservatism, then the social order would require the external domination of state terror. This argument is partially correct, in that from history, conservatives have resorted to terror when internalized domination has failed to work.
The possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion is highly possible. (Philip E. A, 2004, pg 57) 3) Liberalism a. Definition Liberalism refers to the broad category of political philosophies that make equality and liberty the first priority in politics. It puts a lot of emphasis on the rights of individuals, and the freedom for them to do what they desire to do, as long as it is legal. Liberalism also advocates for opportunities that are equal for every one, including on jobs, education, health care and many more.
The term liberalism can be used to express or support different ideas, and has been associated with democracy. Anti liberals ensure that political liberals do not misuse their powers, oversee a government that exists by consent of people, the exercising of the political and the civil rights of the people, the freedom to worship, to protect the private property among others. The concept of social capital has been famous among the liberals and the conservatives for a while now.
The conservative version of the social capital is the medieval ideology that justifies then hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of the community. The medieval notion of the community is particularistic in nature. All the people in the community are knitted to every one else through the relationships they were born in and which they accept, or through the roles that they play in the society. By neglecting to mention the oppression of the life long hierarchical bonds that make up the relationships, they are made to sound very harmonious and the objectives to it are made to sound divisive.
(Smith . G. W, 2002, pg 51) b. Criticism on liberalism Critics of liberalism are categorized in to two schools, which include Marxist and non Marxist. Marxists argue on liberalism based on the differences in the social classes in the society, and argue that the faults of liberalism are as a result of the inequality. The non Marxists do not pay a lot of attention to class, but claim that the idea of liberalism has degraded and infected all members of the Western societies, including the rulers and the non rulers, the employees and the employers.