Prime Minister of India and his Council of Minister

PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA Roles, Power, Functions and Responsibilities THE PRIME MINISTER IS THE MOST IMPORTANT AND POWERFUL EXECUTIVE OF THE STATE. HE CAN BE CALLED THE RULER-OF THE STATE. HE IS THE HEAD OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS AND ALL THE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT ARE ACTUALLY EXERCISED BY THE MINISTERS. HE CAN RULE THE COUNTRY IN A WAY WHICH HE THINKS THE BEST. HE IS THE ARCHITECT OF THE FATE OF STATE. THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA HOLDS THE PIVOTAL POSITION AND IN FACT HE IS MORE POWERFUL THAN THE PRESIDENT. THE OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER FIRST ORIGINATED IN ENGLAND AND WAS BORROWED BY THE FRAMERS OF THE CONSTITUTION.

ARTICLE 74(I) OF OUR CONSTITUTION EXPRESSLY STATES THAT THE PRIME MINISTER SHALL BE AT THE HEAD- OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. HENCE, THE OTHER MINISTERS CANNOT FUNCTION WITHOUT THE PRIME MINISTER. THEORETICALLY, THE PRIME MINISTER IS SELECTED BY THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA. IN REALITY, THE PRESIDENT INVITES THE LEADER OF THE MAJORITY PARTY IN PARLIAMENT TO FORM THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. USUALLY, POLITICAL PARTIES GO TO THE PARLIAMENTARY POLLS WITH A CLEAR CHOICE OF THEIR LEADERS. FOR THE MOST PART, THE VOTERS KNOW, IF AND WHEN A PARTICULAR PARTY WINS A MAJORITY IN THE LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT, WHO IS LIKELY TO BE-THE PRIME MINISTER.

THE PRESIDENT CAN EXERCISE SOME DISCRETION IN THE SELECTION OF THE PRIME MINISTER WHEN NO PARTY COMMANDS A CLEAR MAJORITY IN THE LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT. IN SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES, THE PRESIDENT MAY REQUEST THE SINGLE LARGEST PARTY TO FORM GOVERNMENT OR ALTERNATIVELY, HE MAY ALLOW A COALITION GOVERNMENT TO BE FORMED. WHEN A PARTY LEADER HAS A CLEAR MAJORITY SUPPORT IN THE LOWER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT, THE PRESIDENT HAS NO CHOICE BUT TO CALL UPON HIM TO FORM THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. APPOINTMENT THE PRIME MINISTER IS APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT BUT WHILE DOING SO THE PRESIDENT IS NOT HAVING A FREE HAND.

ONLY THAT PERSON CAN BE APPOINTED TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRIME-MINISTER WHO IS THE LEADER OF THE MAJORITY PARTY IN THE LOK SABHA. AFTER THE GENERAL ELECTION THE PRESIDENT INVITES THE LEADER OF THE PARTY WHICH HAS GAINED MAJORITY IN THE LOK SABHA TO FORM THE GOVERNMENT. IF NO POLITICAL PARTY GETS AN ABSOLUTE MAJORITY IN THE LOK SABHA EVEN THEN THE PRESIDENT IS NOT FREE TO APPOINT ANYBODY THE PRIME-MINISTER. UNDER SUCH CIRCUMSTANCES ONLY THAT PERSON WILL BE INVITED TO FORM THE GOVERNMENT WHO CAN SEEK THE CO-OPERATION OF THE MAJORITY OF MEMBERS IN THE LOK SABHA & CAN PROVE HIS MAJORITY ON THE FLOOR OF LOK SABHA.

WITHIN THE STIPULATED PERIOD. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA TO BECOME PM OF INDIA TO BE ELIGIBLE FOR THE POSITION OF THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, A PERSON SHOULD BE •A citizen of India. •A member of either the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha. •Should complete 25 years of age if he/she is a member of the Lok Sabha or 30 years OF AGE IF HE/SHE IS A MEMBER OF THE RAJYA SABHA. •A person cannot be the Prime Minister of India if he/she holds any office of profit UNDER THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, THE GOVERNMENT OF ANY STATE, OR ANY LOCAL OR OTHER AUTHORITY SUBJECT TO THE CONTROL OF ANY OF THE SAID GOVERNMENTS.

TENURE THE PRIME MINISTER THEORETICALLY HOLDS OFFICE DURING THE PLEASURE OF THE PRESIDENT. ACTUALLY THE PRIME MINISTER STAYS IN OFFICE AS LONG AS HE ENJOYS THE CONFIDENCE OF THE PARLIAMENT. THE NORMAL TERM IS FIVE YEARS BUT IT IS AUTOMATICALLY REDUCED IF THE HOUSE IS DISSOLVED EARLIER. SALARY THE PRIME MINISTER GETS THE SAME SALARY AND ALLOWANCES WHICH ARE PAID TO THE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. HE ALSO RECEIVES A CONSTITUENCY ALLOWANCE LIKE OTHER MPS. IN ADDITION HE GETS SUMPTUARY ALLOWANCE PER MONTH. IT IS FIXED BY THE PARLIAMENT FROM TIME TO TIME. FACILITIES.

SOME OF THE AMENITIES PROVIDED TO THE INDIAN PRIME MINISTER ARE: OFFICIAL RESIDENCE: 7, RACE COURSE OR “PANCHAVATI” PERSONAL STAFF SPECIAL PROTECTION GROUP (SPG), RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY PRIME MINISTERIAL CAR (CURRENTLY BMW 750I) EXCLUSIVE AIRCRAFT (AIR INDIA ONE) POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE PRIME MINISTER THE PRIME MINISTER PERFORMS MANY SIGNIFICANT FUNCTIONS IN THE INDIAN POLITICAL SYSTEM AND EXERCISES VAST POWERS TO HIS ADVANTAGE. HE IS THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF THE NATION AND WORKS AS HEAD OF THE UNION GOVERNMENT.

“THE PRIME MINISTER IS,” ACCORDING TO NEHIIR, “THE LINCH-PIN OF THE GOVERNMENT” AND AS SUCH HIS POWERS AND FUNCTIONS ARE FOLLOWING : 1) Head of Government: THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA IS HEAD OF STATE WHILE PRIME MINISTER IS HEAD OF GOVERNMENT. ALTHOUGH THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA IS VESTED WITH MANY EXECUTIVE POWERS, IN ACTUAL PRACTICE HE OR SHE ACTS ONLY AT THE ADVICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET. ALL MAJOR APPOINTMENTS OF THE UNION GOVERNMENT ARE VIRTUALLY MADE BY THE PRIME MINISTER AND ALL THE MAJOR DECISION-MAKING BODIES LIKES THE UNION CABINET, PLANNING COMMISSION, CABINET COMMITTEE FUNCTIONS UNDER HIS SUPERVISION AND DIRECTION. 2) PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET.

I) FORMATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS- HIS FIRST DUTY AFTER ASSUMING OFFICE IN THE FORMATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. HE PREPARES A LIST OF MINISTERS ACCORDING TO HIS SWEET WILL. HE HAS A FREE HAND IN THE SELECTION OF MINISTERS. II) DISTRIBUTION OF PORTFOLIOS – THE PRIME MINISTER DISTRIBUTES WORK AMONG THE MINISTERS. HE DECIDES WHAT DEPT. IS TO BE ALLOTTED TO A PARTICULAR MINISTER. HE CONTROLS THE WORKING OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF HIS MINISTERS. IF THE PRIME MINISTER IS NOT SATISFIED WITH THE WORKING OF A DEPARTMENT, HE CAN CHANGE THE DEPARTMENT OF THAT MINISTER. HE DISTRIBUTES PARTICULAR.

DEPARTMENTS TO MINISTERS IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEY CAN RUN THE DEPARTMENTS QUITE EFFICIENTLY. III) REMOVAL OF THE MINISTERS – THE MINISTERS REMAIN IN OFFICE DURING THE PLEASURE OF THE PRIME MINISTER. IF THE PRIME MINISTER IS NOT SATISFIED WITH THE WORKING OF A MINISTER OR THE MINISTER DOES NOT RUN THE DEPARTMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE WISHES OF THE PRIME MINISTER, HE CAN ASK HIM TO QUIT THE OFFICE & CAN APPOINT SOMEONE ELSE IN HIS PLACE. IV) LEADERSHIP OF THE CABINET THE PRIME MINISTER LEADS THE CABINET IN THE PARLIAMENT. THE MINISTERS ANSWER THE QUESTION BUT TO THEM BY THE MEMBERS OF THE PARLIAMENT.

THE PRIME MINISTER EXPLAINS THE POLICY & DECISION OF THE CABINET TO THE PARLIAMENT. ALL IMPORTANT STATEMENTS ON BEHALF OF THE CABINET ARE MADE BY THE PRIME MINISTER IN THE PARLIAMENT. AS FAR AS THE PRIME MINISTER’S RELATION TO THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS IS CONCERNED, HIS/HER POSITION IS THAT OF “FIRST AMONG EQUALS”. IF THE CASE OF DEATH OR RESIGNATION OF THE PRIME MINISTER, THE ENTIRE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS HAS TO RESIGN. THE MINISTERS DIRECTLY REPORT TO THE PRIME MINISTER. HE/SHE CAN ALSO REMOVE A MINISTER BY ASKING FOR HIS RESIGNATION OR HAVING HIM DISMISSED BY THE PRESIDENT.

IF ANY DIFFERENCE OF OPINION ARISES BETWEEN THE PRIME MINISTER AND ANY OTHER MINISTER, THE OPINION OF THE PRIME MINISTER PREVAILS. ACCORDING TO ARTICLE 74(I), “THERE SHALL BE A COUNCIL OF MINISTERS WITH THE PRIME MINISTER AT THE HEAD. ” PRIME MINISTER IS NOT ONLY PRIMUS INTER PARES BUT TO USE IVOR JEANINGS PHRASE, A SUN AROUND WHICH OTHER MINISTERS REVOLVE LIKE PLANETS. IT IS HE WHO SELECTS THE OTHER MINISTERS. IT IS HE WHO DISTRIBUTES PORTFOLIOS AMONG THEM. IT IS HE WHO PRESIDES OVER MEETINGS OF THE CABINET AND DETERMINES WHAT BUSINESS SHALL BE TRANSACTED AT THESE MEETINGS. MUKHERJEE, MATHAI, NEOGY, AMBEDKAR, AND C.

D. DESHMUKH RESIGNED MAINLY BECAUSE OF PERSONAL DIFFERENCES WITH NEHRU. THE PRIME MINISTER, AS CHAIRMAN OF THE CABINET CAN INFLUENCE CABINET DECISIONS WHICH ARE MADE BY CONSENSUS MORE OFTEN THAN BY VOTING. IT IS FOR THE PRIME MINISTER TO SUM OF THE SENSE OF THE MEETING AND DECLARE THE CONSENSUS. HIS RESIGNATION INVOLVES THE RESIGNATION OF ALL MINISTERS. LASKI’S DICTUM, “THE PRIME MINISTER IS CENTRAL TO THE FORMATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, CENTRAL TO ITS LIFE AND CENTRAL TO ITS DEATH IS AS TRUE OF THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AS OF HIS BRITISH COUNTERPART. 3) Sole advice of the President

THE PRIME MINISTER IS THE CHIEF ADVISER OF THE PRESIDENT. THE PRESIDENT SEEKS THE ADVICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER IN ALL MATTERS OF THE STATE. THE PRIME MINISTER INFORMS THE PRESIDENT REGARDING ALL THE DECISIONS TAKEN BY THE CABINET. ARTICLE 78 OF THE CONSTITUTION DEFINES THE DUTIES OF THE PRIME MINISTER, AND IN THE DISCHARGE OF THOSE DUTIES REACTS AS A LINK BETWEEN THE PRESIDENT AND THE CABINET. THE DUTIES DEFINED IN THIS ARTICLE ARE (A) TO COMMUNICATE TO THE PRESIDENT ALL DECISIONS OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, (B) TOFURNISHSUCHINFORMATIONRELATINGTOTHEADMINISTRATION OFTHEAFFAIRSOFTHEUNIONAND.

PROPOSALS FOR LEGISLATION AS THE PRESIDENT MAY CALL FOR; AND (C) IF THE PRESIDENT SO REQUIRES, TO SUBMIT FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS ANY MATTER OF WHICH A DECISION HAS BEEN TAKEN BY A MINISTER BUT WHICH HAS NOT BEEN CONSIDERED BY THE COUNCIL. 4) LEADER OF THE HOUSE THE PRIME-MINISTER IS THE LEADER OF THE HOUSE. OUT OF THE TWO HOUSES THE POSITION OF THE LOK SABHA IS OF GREAT IMPORTANCE & THE PRIME MINISTER IS THE LEADER OF THE LOK SABHA. HE DETERMINES THE DATES OF ITS MEETINGS, AS ALSO ITS PROGRAMMES FOR THE SESSION. HE DECIDES WHEN THE HOUSES IS TO BE PROROGUED OR DISSOLVED.

HE IS THE CHIEF SPOKES MAN OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE HOUSE AND IT IS HE WHO USUALLY KEEPS IT INFORMED ABOUT THE GOVERNMENT’S INTENTIONS. AS LEADER OF THE HOUSE, THE PRIME MINISTER IS IN A SPECIAL POSITION OF SPECIAL ADVANTAGE. HE MAKES ANNOUNCEMENT OF PRINCIPAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND ANSWERS QUESTIONS ON SUPER-DEPARTMENTAL LINES. HE CAN CORRECT THE ERRORS MADE BY HIS MINISTERS ON THE FLOOR OF THE HOUSE AND CAN EVEN REBUKE AND REPRIMAND THEM. HE CAN CARRY THE HOUSE WITH HIM ON ALL MATTERS OF IMPORTANCE. HE REPRESENTS THE CABINET AS A WHOLE UNLIKE ANY OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GOVERNMENT.

THE PARLIAMENT ALWAYS DEPENDS UPON THE POLICY & GUIDANCE OF THE PRIME MINISTER FOR FACING ANY PROBLEM. ALL THE IMPORTANT DECISIONS IN THE PARLIAMENT ARE TAKEN ACCORDING TO THE WISHES OF THE PARLIAMENT. 5) Chief Spokesman in foreign relations: IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THE PRIME MINISTER IS REGARDED AS CHIEF SPOKESMAN OF THE COUNTRY. HIS STATEMENTS ARE, FOR THE OUTSIDE WORLD; STATEMENTS OF POLICIES OF THE NATION. IN INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES IT IS HE WHO SPEAKS FOR THE NATION. IN DEALING WITH NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES AND CONFERENCE HE LIKES THE LEAD OUR PRIME MINISTER HAVE HAD A SPECIAL INTEREST IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND THIS HAS HELPED THEN TO STRENGTHEN THEIR POSITION OF HAVE ALSO.

6) Chairman of the Planning Commissions: THE PLANNING COMMISSION IS AN EXTRA-CONSTITUTIONAL ADVISORY BODY UNDER THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF THE PRIME MINISTER. IT HAS COVERED ALL THE SPHERES OF ACTIVITIES OF BOTH THE CENTRE AND THE STATES. IT HAS BECOME A SUPER CABINET UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF THE PRIME MINISTER. ALL IMPORTANT DECISIONS, REGARDING THE ECONOMIC POLICY ARE TAKEN BY THE PLANNING COMMISSION UNDER THE CHAIRMANSHIP OF THE PRIME MINISTER. FROM THE ABOVE SUMMARY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PRIME MINISTER, IT IS OBVIOUSLY SAID THE PRIME MINISTER HOLDS VERY IMPORTANT POSITION IN THE COUNTRY.

7) Leader of the Nation THE PRIME MINISTER IS ALSO THE LEADER OF THE NATION. THE PRESIDENT IS THE HEAD OF THE STATE & THE PRIME MINISTER IS THE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT. A GENERAL ELECTION MEANS THAT ELECTION OF THE PRIME MINISTER. POSITION OF THE PRIME MINISTER AN ANALYSIS OF THE POWERS OF THE PRIME MINISTER PROVES THAT HE IS THE PIVOT OF THE WHOLE SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. HE OCCUPIES A POSITION OF EXCEPTIONAL AUTHORITY. K. T SHAH OBSERVED THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY “THIS CONSTITUTION CONCENTRATES SO MUCH POWER & INFLUENCE IN THE HANDS OF THE PRIME-MINISTER THAT THERE IS EVERY DANGER TO APPREHEND THAT THE PRIME MINISTER MAY BECOME A DICTATOR IF HE CHOOSES TO DO SO.

N. V. GADGIL SAYS THAT ” THE PRIME MINISTER IS INVESTED WITH FORMIDABLE POWER & INFLUENCED UNLESS HE BE A GENUINE DEMOCRAT BY NATURE HE IS VERY LIKELY TO BECOME A DICTATOR. IN THE WORDS OF NEHRU “THE PRIME MINISTER IS THE KING PIN OF THE GOVERNMENT. ACCORDING TO LASKI “THE PRIME MINISTER IS CENTRAL TO THE FORMATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS, CENTRAL TO ITS LIFE, CENTRAL TO ITS DEATH. HOWEVER, THE PRIME MINISTER’S SUPREMACY IS NOT DUE ENTIRELY TO THE POWER WHICH BELONGS TO HIS OFFICE.

MUCH DEPENDS UPON HIS PERSONALITY. IF HE IS A MAN OF DYNAMIC PERSONALITY HE WILL BE ABLE TO DOMINATE THE POLITICAL SCENE. COUNCIL OF MINISTERS THE INDIAN PRIME MINISTER OCCUPIES THE MOST POWERFUL POSITION TO FUNCTION AS THE HEAD OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. ARTICLE 74 OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION CREATES THE OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES THAT THERE WILL BE A COUNCIL OF MINISTERS WITH THE PRIME MINISTER AT THE HEAD TO “AID AND ADVICE” THE PRESIDENT IN THE EXERCISE OF HIS FUNCTIONS.

THE PRIME MINISTER’S LEADERSHIP WITH THE COUNCIL OF MINISTER IS FURTHER CONSOLIDATED BY ARTICLE 75 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA. ALL THE MINISTERS ARE APPOINTED BY THE PRESIDENT ON THE ADVICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER PORTFOLIOS ARE DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE MINISTERS BY THE PRESIDENT ACCORDING TO THE WISHES OF THE PRIME MINISTER. INCONVENIENT MINISTERS ARE DISMISSED AND MINISTERIAL PORTFOLIOS ARE REDISTRIBUTED, AS THE PRIME MINISTER DESIRES. THUS THOUGH CONSTITUTIONALLY, THE ORDINARY MINISTERS SERVE DURING THE PLEASURE OF THE PRESIDENT, IN REALITY THEY SERVE DURING THE PLEASURE OF THE PRIME MINISTER. A MINISTER MUST BE A MEMBER OF EITHER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT.

IF A PERSON WHO IS NOT A MEMBER OF EITHER HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT IS APPOINTED A MINISTER, HE SHALL CEASE TO BE A MINISTER AFTER SIX MONTHS, UNLESS IN THE MEANWHILE HE MANAGES TO GET ELECTED TO EITHER OF THE TWO HOUSES. MINISTERS MAY BE CHOSEN FROM MEMBERS OF EITHER HOUSE AND A MINISTER WHO IS A MEMBER OF ONE HOUSE , HAS RIGHT TO SPEAK IN AND TO TAKE PART IN THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE OTHER HOUSE THOUGH HE HAS NO RIGHT TO VOTE IN THE HOUSE OF WHICH HE IS NOT MEMBER. THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS IS NOT A SINGLE BODY BUT A COMPOSITE BODY, CONSISTING OF MINISTERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS.

THE CLASSIFICATION IS DONE INFORMALLY FOLLOWING THE BRITISH PRACTICE. THE MINISTERS ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, VIZ. , CABINET MINISTERS, MINISTERS OF STATE AND DEPUTY MINISTERS. THE CABINET IS AN INFORMAL BODY OF SENIOR MINISTERS WHO FORM THE INNER CIRCLE. IT IS LIKE A WHEEL WITHIN A WHEEL. THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS , SELDOM MEETS AS A BODY. IT IS THE CABINET WHICH MEETS AS AND WHEN SUMMONED BY THE PRIME MINISTER. AGAIN THE CONSTITUTION DOES NOT SPELL OUT THE SIZE OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. THE PRIME MINISTER DECIDES HOW MANY MINISTERS SHOULD BE THERE. CATEGORIES OF MINISTERS IN GOVERNMENT.

THERE ARE THREE CATEGORIES OF MINISTERS WITHIN THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS – CABINET, MINISTERS OF STATE WITH INDEPENDENT CHARGES AND MINISTERS OF STATE WORKING WITH THE CABINET MINISTERS. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CABINET MINISTERS OF INDIA THE CABINET OF INDIA IS THE CORE OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS OF THE UNION GOVERNMENT, AND THE COLLECTIVE DECISION-MAKING BODY. ALL THE IMPORTANT PORTFOLIOS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TOGETHER COMPRISE THE CABINET. SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MINISTRIES ARE MINISTRY OF DEFENCE, MINISTRY OF FINANCE, MINISTRY OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY AND OTHERS.

THE ROLE OF THE CABINET RANGES FROM ADVISING THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS AND PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO THEM, ATTEND CABINET MEETINGS CALLED BY EITHER THE PRIME MINISTER OR ANY ONE OF THE CABINET MINISTERS TO DISCUSS ISSUES RELATED TO HIS MINISTRY. MORE IMPORTANTLY, IT IS THE ROLE OF THE CABINET PRIMARILY TO KEEP THE CONFIDENCE OF THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT DURING THE PARTY’S TENURE IN THE UNION GOVERNMENT. IT IS THE COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE CABINET TO BE ACCOUNTABLE TO THE TWO HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, FOR ITS POLICIES AND SCHEMES. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MINISTERS OF STATE WITH INDEPENDENT CHARGES.

THE MINISTERS OF STATE WITH INDEPENDENT CHARGES ARE THE SECOND CATEGORY OF MINISTERS IN THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. THEY ARE NOT AS IMPORTANT IN THEIR ROLE AS THE CABINET. THERE IS NO OVERSEEING CABINET MINISTER FOR THE PORTFOLIO OF THE MINISTER OF STATE WITH INDEPENDENT CHARGES. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MINISTERS OF STATE MINISTERS OF STATE WORKING WITH THE CABINET MINISTERS ARE THE THIRD RANK OF MINISTERS. THESE ARE JUNIOR MINISTERS WHO ASSIST THE CABINET MINISTER IN THE PARTICULAR PORTFOLIO. THESE JUNIOR MINISTERS LOOK AFTER ONE OR TWO ASPECTS OF THE CABINET PORTFOLIO, AND NOT THE WHOLE MINISTRY.

AS SUCH. THE CABINET GOVT. WORKS IN ACCORDANCE WITH CERTAIN WELL RECOGNIZED PRINCIPLES. LIKE ITS PROTOTYPE ON ENGLAND, THE INDIAN CABINET WORKS ON THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES. (I) NOMINAL EXECUTIVE HEAD OF THE STATE: THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF CABINET GOVERNMENT IS THAT THE HEAD OF THE STATE IS NOMINAL AND DOES NOT REALLY EXERCISE THE POWER VESTED IN HIM BY THE CONSTITUTION. ALL THE POWERS OF THE HEAD OF THE STATE ARE EVERISED BY HIS MINISTER WHO BELONG TO THE MAJORITY PARTY IN THE LEGISLATURE AND THE RESPONSIBLE TO IT. IN INDIA, THE PRESIDENT IS A CONSTITUTIONAL HEAD AND ITS SUPPOSED TO ACT.

ON THE ADVICE OF HIS COUNCIL OF MINISTERS. THERE ARE NO “DISCRETIONARY’ OR ‘INDIVIDUAL JUDGEMENT’ POWER OF THE PRESIDENT AND NOW IT HAS BEEN MADE A CONSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATION FOR THE PRESIDENT TO ACT UPON THE ADVICE GIVEN BY THE MINISTERS. (II) CO-ORDINATION BETWEEN THE CABINET AND LEGISLATURE: A PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IMPLIES A CLOSE COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE CABINET AND LEGISLATURE. FOR THIS PURPOSE THE MINISTERS ARE DRAWN FROM THE MAJORITY PARTY IN THE LEGISLATURE. AS MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATURE THE MINISTERS ATTEND THE MEETING OF THE.

LEGISLATURE, MORE AND PILOT BILLS, PARTICIPATE IN DEBATES AND ANSWER QUESTION AND DEFEND THEIR POLICIES. THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE LEGISLATURE GIVES TO MINISTERS AN EFFECTIVE OPPORTUNITY TO COME, INTO CLOSE RELATION WITH THE LEGISLATURE. THERE IS NO WORKING OF CROSS PURPOSE. (III) POLITICAL HOMOGENEITY: THE CABINET GOVERNMENT MEANS PARTY GOVERNMENT. NORMALLY ALL THE MINISTERS BELONG TO THE SAME POLITICAL PARTY, HOLD THE SAME POLITICAL VIEWS AND SUBSCRIBE TO THE SAME POLITICAL PRINCIPLES. THIS POLITICAL HOMOGENEITY PROVIDES STABILITY IN GOVERNMENT UNDER A UNIFIED COMMAND OF DISCIPLINED LEADERS.

(IV) COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY: THE PRINCIPLE OF COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PRINCIPLE UPON WHICH THE UNION CABINET FUNCTIONS. THE CONSTITUTION CLEARLY RECOGNISES THIS PRINCIPLE BY PROVIDING THAT “THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS SHALL BE COLLECTIVELY RESPONSIBLE TO THE HOUSE OF PEOPLE. COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY MEANS THAT ALL MINISTERS ARE JOINTLY AND COLLECTIVELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE AFFAIRS OF THE COUNTRY AS A BODY. THE COUNCIL MUST ACT AS A TEAM AND PUT UP A UNITED FRONT IN THE PARLIAMENT.

THEY SINK AND SWIM TOGETHER. THOUGH THE WORK OF GOVERNMENT IS DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS AND EACH MINISTER LOOKS TO THE ADMINISTRATION OF HIS OWN DEPARTMENT BUT THE PARLIAMENT AND TO THE PEOPLE AT LARGE THE MINISTERS FORM AN INDIVISIBLE WHOLE AND ARE ANSWERABLE AS A BODY FOR THE ACTIONS WHICH MAY HAVE BEEN TAKEN IN INDIVIDUAL DEPARTMENTS. IN THE COUNCIL THERE IS NO DIVISION AND NO DIFFERENCE OF OPINION. (V) SECRECY: SECRECY IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THE CABINET SYSTEM.

IT IS NECESSARY TO EFFECTIVELY SECURE THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY. THE PRACTICAL UTILITY OF SECRECY IS “THE NECESSITY OF SECURING FREE DISCUSSION BY WHICH A COMPROMISE CAN BE REACHED, WITHOUT THE RISK OF PUBLICITY FOR EVERY STATEMENT MADE AND “EVERY POINT GIVEN AWAY. ” THERE MUST BE RESPONSIBLE LICENSE DISCUSSION IF MATURE, RATIONAL ARID INDEPENDENT CONTRIBUTION TO PROCESS OF POLICY MAKING IS DESIRED FROM MEN WHO ARE ENGAGED A COMMON CAUSE. SECRECY IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY FOR PRODUCING, POLITICAL UNANIMITY AND TO MAKE THE COUNCIL APPEAR BEFORE THE RESIDENT, THE PARLIAMENT AND THE PEOPLE AS A TEAM. ARTICLE 74(4) POSES UPON EVERY MINISTER A CONSTITUTIONAL OBLIGATION TO TAKE OATH OF SECRECY BEFORE HE ENTERS UPON HIS OFFICE.