Political philosophy

Sovereignty is an important part of a nation state's government. Without it, the rights and liberties of its citizens are not fully protected by national or international standards. Also, the power and strength that the nation state holds is very important in the protection of the nation state. 1. Survival of the fittest •SOVEREIGNTY COULD PROVIDE PUBLIC GOODS LIKE STANDARDIZATION OF WEIGHTS and measures, standardization of coinage, tariff-free trade areas, binding regulation on trade, and an internal juridical hierarchy.

A system of enforceable rules supported the development of a uniform and vigorous national policy on a wide range of issues including, crucially but not solely, the prosecution of wars. 2. Mutual empowerment •IDENTIFIABLE SOVEREIGNTY MAKES NEGOTIATIONS EASIER. ONE KNOWS WHOM to talk to and what the decision is. The issue here is territorial juridiction as well as the ability to make credible commitments. Even when the Hanseatic League did develop common policies, it was unclear precisely to whom and where they applied. In the vital commerce with England, many cities cut independent deals at the expense of their fellow members.

Hamburg, for example, acted like sovereign state when it applying special trade rules to its own ports. They behaved no differently in pursuit of these than sovereign states But the volatility of their internal politics made it difficult to for them to govern territory that was indispuitable theirs. When sovereign states recognized the city-states as members of the international system, it was almost always as weaker powers. The more consolidated their internal politics, they more they resembled miniature sovereign states. REFERENCE 1. World Politics: Trends and Transformation 11th Edition , Charles W. Kegley,Jr. 2.

John Locke, Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 3. Karl Marx,Political Science: A Primer, penulis Syed Serajul Islam and Abdul Rashid Moten WHAT IS SOVEREIGNTY Sovereignty is a form of power that a nation state has over itself and its people. There are several key questions that need to be answered to understand sovereignty: what is a nation state, what is power, and why (because of power and statehood) is sovereignty important. This paper will also use some historical works to show the good and bad aspects of sovereignty.

A nation state is, very simply, a group or nation of people who live under the rule of one government. An example of a nation state is the United States. The U. S. is different from a state, such as, Indiana, because the United States government rules all the people in all 50 states whereas Indiana's government rules only Indiana. Sometimes the nation state is elected by the people and sometimes the nation state government imposes itself on the people. Most often people in a nation state have similar traditions, culture, and identity. Regardless of how the nation state gains power, usually its citizens are given certain rights.

This also means that the nation state has certain rights such as liberty, or freedom, from outside forces. This freedom is called sovereignty. In order to understand sovereignty one must appreciate the role power plays and its relationship to the state and sovereignty. Power, according to The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, is "The ability is political, legal, economic, military, social or moral of one political actor to influence another political actor to do or not do something" . Therefore, when one nation state tries to oppress another nation state this is an attack on the first nation state's sovereignty.

A prime example of this kind of attack is when Iraq took over Kuwait during the Gulf War. Iraq was exerting power over the rights and liberty of citizens of another country and, in doing so, threatened the popular sovereignty of that nation. The concept of sovereignty essentially says that the collective identity of a nation state's people possesses the right to liberty from oppression by outside sources. Alexis de Tocqueville, a French aristocrat and author of the famous book called Democracy in America, found there could be problems with sovereignty.

De Tocqueville feared that if citizens put too much power into the hands of its elected government, they would lose their individual freedoms. By this de Tocqueville meant that government needs to be free and democratic and it needs to make sure that the citizens of that government have ways to keep their elected government from becoming too powerful. There are reasons why de Tocqueville's worries are valid but, in the American model, popular sovereignty was good because it helped a large group of people join together as one group and exert their power over European countries that wanted control of America.

Another famous book that argues the good qualities of sovereignty is The Federalist or more commonly known as The Federalist Papers. The Federalist Papers were written by three men, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison , and John Jay, during the 1780s. They argued that sovereignty was good because it was a way to protect the values, freedom, and identity of a nation state from other countries that might try to take them away: In case, the concurrence of thirteen distinct sovereign wills is requisite, under the Confederation, to the complete execution of every important measure that proceeds from the Union. It has happened as was to have been foreseen.

The measures of the Union have not been executed; the delinquencies of the states have, step by step, matured themselves to an extreme, which has, at length, arrested all the wheels of the national government, and brought them to an awful stand. By this, Alexander Hamilton, the author of this Paper, was stating that a nation state must be strong as a whole to protect itself. Before the 13 Colonies became the United States they were vulnerable. When a nation state has a strong government then its sovereignty is protected.

Beside that , the other meaning of sovereignty is the legal doctrine that states have supreme authority to govern their internal affairs and manage their foreign relations with other states and IGOs. Sovereignty can be explain by the existence of a powerful rule over the whole territory and all the people is absolutely the existence of the country. Other government authorities or other countries in the region and the country. Such authority is called the rule. Then other sources is sovereignty is the concept that sovereign power is vested in the people and that those chosen to govern, as trustees of such power, must exercise it in conformity with the general will.

Sovereignty is closely linked with state. Did you know what is state? There are different meaning about state : The state is a human society that (succesfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. or The state is the product of class contradictions and class struggle and is controlled by the economically-dominant class. or Country is a tool (agency) or authority (authority) to regulate or control the questions together, in the name of the community.

INTRODUCTION International Relations on Sovereignty Realism has dominated international relations theory since at least World War II when it replaced liberalism as the dominant paradigm. Over time, liberals resurfaced as they saw states being challenged in ways for which realists could not account. Since that time a debate has evolved between these two paradigms over the role and the strength of the state in the international system. Differentiating between realism and neorealism, or liberalism and its multiple variants (liberal institutionalism, neoliberalism, idealism, collective security, critical thought, and neoinstitutionalism) is not necessary to understand this debate. The variants of each paradigm are in agreement about their underlying assumptions.

Joseph Grieco notes that he “does not distinguish between realism and “neorealism,” because on crucial issues the meaning of international anarchy, its effects on states, and the problem of cooperation modern realists like Waltz and Gilpin are very much in accord with classical realists like Carr, Aron and Morgenthau. ” For similar reasons, refer to liberals and their variants collectively because of their core beliefs on cooperation, institutions, their effect on the state, and the significance of transnational issues.

. WHAT IS CHARACTERISTIC OF SOVEREIGN STATE Absoluteness: Sovereignty is defined as absolute, supreme and unlimited power. There is no other power higher than the state that can issue commands to it. The sovereign is the source of all laws and rights. It is above law. Austin was the greatest champion of this theory. Indivisibility of Sovereignty: Sovereignty, it is said, is indivisible and cannot be divided into parts. According to Calhoun, "Sovereignty is an entire thing; to divide it is to destroy it. Exclusiveness: It means that there can be only one sovereign in a state. This feature is identical with indivisibility of sovereignty. Universality or all-comprehensiveness:

The sovereign has jurisdiction over all persons, things, associations and groups within the state territory. No person or association can claim exemption from its laws. Its laws are universal. Permanence: So long as a state lasts, its sovereignty also lasts. Changes in government do not affect its continuity and permanence. Inalienability: This means that the state cannot transfer its sovereignty without its own death. Sovereignty being the vital element of the state, its alienability is tantamount.