Political Ideologies – Socialism

The belief is that the collective human endeavor is better in practical terms and on a moral basis than individualism and self-striving. This pushes forward an idea that humans are socially adhering creatures and that any group is good as a political entity. Thus, groups often mentioned in political contexts like 'class', 'race' and 'nation' are applicable to this concept. This term has been applied to several viewpoints and inconsistently due to the difference between the theories of which it has been applied.

Some Anarchists apply collectivism to groups of associated individuals that govern themselves. Further away from this; some throw out any 'individuality' concept, and one can see how Collectivism might apply to this. The collective interest prevailing over the individual. This in other words is the many over the few. Utopianism Utopian theories are based on assumptions of a limitless possibility for Human self-development. A Utopia is a goal where Humanity lives in a 'perfect' society.

A utopia can be different from another utopia concerning how it may be envisaged but the basic format is that 'wants' are gone; along with warfare, violence and oppression. What are the differences between Revolutionary Socialism and Evolutionary Socialism? Many Socialists believed that Socialism could only be introduced by overthrowing the current political system. Blanqui proposed to do it through a small band of conspirators. Marx and Engels however, saw a proletarian revolution in which the masses of the working class would overthrow the bourgeoisie.

This view arose from a growing dislike of Capitalism; industrialization having produced an injustice geared towards the working classes with widespread poverty and unemployment. Moreover, the proletariat did not have a political voice to represent them, as the majority of workers could not vote. These socialists saw that the state in an effort to act in the favour of capital and negated the needs of the Labour. Thus, people like Marx said that revolution was unavoidable to instate Socialism.

The context of these theories was unsettled with many discontent in the lower classes during the 19th century. Lenin saw Parliamentary democracy in an even dimmer light and called it a fai?? ade 'concealing the reality of class rule'. The view that the system was against the bourgeoisie was also supported by the fact 'concealing the reality of class rule'. The view that the system was against the bourgeoisie was also supported by the fact that all personnel of state came from a privileged social background.

Evolutionary Socialism proposed a peaceful change as the working class lost the revolutionary urge amidst being integrated into society. In addition, wages and living standards rose. Representation also increased with working men's clubs, trade unions and political parties. Change was still wanted but through a democratic process. At the forefront; a political party would win over opposition parties peacefully and through Education make the mass population adhere to Socialist ideas.

This concept is Fabian as it suggests that the state had a neutral stance and could be accepted as a route towards Socialism. This was in conjunction with many new political parties like the German SPD and in Britain with the Labour Party. This change caused many thinkers on socialist reform to acknowledge the democratic process as viable to eventually instate socialism. Lassalle liked the wider acceptance exhibited by the state towards working class and hoped for it's continuation until socialism could gain an effective foothold.

Bernstein saw the ballot box as a device to bring Socialism to the forefront and then taking over due to it's obvious superior reasoning; an evolutionary outgrowth. Gradualism Gradualism was a belief that reform would come about inevitably; that Socialism would prevail with its presence in the diplomatic system. The Fabians saw Socialism as a definite result. This idea was founded upon the changes and prophesized changes of the democratic state allowing an avenue for Socialism to naturally prevail. Equality A fundamental value in which social cohesion and fraternity was a basis for the development of justice or equity.

Although there was a shift towards liberal ideas, the socialist way ensured a more complete freedom in its theories. Ethical socialism Social democracy in the 20th C. is based upon a religious argument rather than on a scientific one. The latter was used by Marx, he saw he ideas as simply revealing the laws of social and historical development; with socialism as an inevitable outcome. Social democrats aimed to improve the moral concepts of capitalism towards the superior socialist values. Christianity was big in influencing it with concepts of brotherhood.