I. Terms a. Centripetal force- An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state b. Centrifugal force- A force that divides people and countries c. Shatterbelt- An area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values d. Nation- a group of people with a common culture occupying a particular territory, bound together by a strong sense of unity arising from shared beliefs and customs.
e. Nation-state- an ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group governed by their own state. Very few states are true nation-states, because most states contain minority peoples who belong to another nation. f. State- An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs g. Unitary State- Countries with highly centralized governments, few internal cultural contrasts, strong sense of national identity and borders that are clearly cultural as well as political. h. Federal State- A state with a two tiered system of government and a clear distinction between the powers vested in the central government and those residing in the governments of the component regional subdivisions.
i. Colony- A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent. j. City- state- A sovereign state comprising a city a city and its immediate hinterland k. Colonialism- Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory. l. Imperialism- Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. m. Relic boundary- boundaries that are not currently relevant but have been in the past – and have important cultural/social implications.
n. Gerrymander- The illegal redrawing of political boundaries for political gain by a political power o. Frontier- A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control p. apartheid q. Regionalism- The consciousness and loyalty to a region considered distinct and different from the state as a whole by those who occupy it. r. Sovereignty- Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states s. Devolution- The release of power by the central or federal government to the different regions of the country. t.
Supranationalism- A supranational organization is one in which member states surrender power in specific areas to a higher organization. u. subsequent- These are installed after settlement – but take account of cultural/ethnic/religious/language differences. Some conflict – but minimized v. antecedent- Boundary formed before present-day human landscape developed w. superimposed- forcibly drawn across a uniform landscape x. core areas- The heartland or nucleus of a state, containing its most developed areas, greatest wealth, densest population and clearest national identity y. primate cities- In many countries the capital is the largest or primate city of a state as well. z. forward capital- “A symbolic relocation of a capital city to a geographically or demographically peripheral location may be for either economic or strategic reasons.
II. State Shape/ Description a. Compact- A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly i. Uganda, Kenya b. Prorupt- An otherwise compact state with a larger projecting extension i. Nambia, DROC c. Elongated- A state with a long, narrow state i. Mozambique. Malawi d. Fragmented III. Nations/Nation States.