Datu is the title for chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs in the Visayas andMindanao Regions of the Philippines. Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty, and are still currently used in the Philippines. Depending upon the prestige of the sovereign prince, this title of Datu could be roughly equated to the European dukes, marquesses,counts, or barons. In big barangays, which had contacts with other southeast Asian cultures through trade, some Datus took the title Rajah or Sultan.
Rajah Humabon King of Cebu who became an ally of Ferdinand Magellan and the Spaniards. Rival of Datu Lapu-Lapu. In 1521, he and his wife were baptized as Christians and given Christian names Carlos and Juana after the Spanish royalty, King Carlos and Queen Juana. Governor General of the Philippines The Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and theUnited States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.
Jose Basco y Vargas He established the Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais, or the Economic Society of Friends of the Country, which revived the tobacco industry in the Philippines. He established the bases for the takeoff of the agriculture of Philippine export with a tolerance policy towards the, theoretically illegal, activity of the foreign retailers, mainly English and North American who went to Manila to complete their product shipments. He also made the colony independent, by freeing it from the control of New Spain, which is today Mexico.
In 1782, Basco sent an expedition to undertake the formalities of acquiring the consent of the Ivatans to become subjects of the king of Spain. On June 26, 1783, Joseph Huelva y Melgarjo became the first governor of Batanes. The new province was named Provincia de la Concepcion and Governor General Basco was named “Conde de la Conquista de Batanes” and the capital town was named after him.  By January 21, 1789, King Carlos III granted in prize to his numerous services the title of Count of Conquista of the Batanes Islands; grace to which he added to the appointments of Squad leader and Governor of Cartagena.  Basco was replaced by Pedro de Sarrio on November 22, 1787.
Magdiwang and magdalo (Katipunan faction) The Magdiwang and magdalo was a chapter of the Katipunan, a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila in 1892, with the aim to gain independence from Spain. In December 1896, Bonicaio was invited by the Katipuneros of Cavite to come to the town of Imus. Thanks to a string of victories led by Emilio Aguinaldo, the rebels now controlled most of the province. Bonifacio, as the highest officer, or Supremo, of the Katipunan, was asked to settle a dispute there were two rival Katipunan councils in Cavite.
One council was the Magdalo, of which Aguinaldo was a member. The other was the Magdiwang council, headed by Mariano Alvarez, a relative of Bonifacio’s wife. Imus Assembly The Imus Assembly was the meeting held between the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions of the Katipunan at Imus, Cavite, Philippines, on December 31, 1896. This was convened in order to settle the leadership dispute between the two factions. The assembly, presided by Andres Bonifacio, was to discuss whether to retain the current Katipunan government or to set up a newrevolutionary government.
The Magdalo supported the idea of having a revolutionary government while the Magdiwang favored the oldKatipunan government. The assembly, however, failed to have a firm resolution. According to Santiago Alvarez and Artemio Ricarte, the assembly agreed to appoint Bonifacio as the head of a legislative committee and to authorize him to appoint members he considers worthy. It is, however, uncertain whether Bonifacio did appoint members of the committee. At this meeting also, a Magdalo engineer and general named Edilberto Evangelista submitted a draft of a constitution both requested by the two factions.
Bonifacio ignored the constitution since the Katipunan already had its own laws Tejeros assembly On March 22, 1897, the Magdiwang and Magdalo councils met once more, this time at the friar estate house in Tejeros, a barrio of San Francisco de Malabon. This convention proved even stormier than the Imus meeting and, as in Imus, the declared objective of the meeting was not even discussed. According to Jacinto Lumbreras, a Magdiwang and first presiding officer of the Tejeros convention, the meeting had been called to adopt measure for the defense of Cavite.
Again this subject was not discussed, and instead, the assembled leaders, including the Magdiwangs, decided to elect the officers of the revolutionary government, thus unceremoniously discarding the Supreme Council of the Katipunan under whose standard the people had been fighting and would continue to fight. Bonifacio presided, though reluctantly, over the election. Beforehand, he secured the unanimous pledge of the assembly to abide by the majority decision. The results were: President Emilio Aguinaldo Vice-President Mariano Trias Captain-General Artemio Ricarte Director of War Emiliano Riego de Dios.
Director of the Interior Andres Bonifacio Naik revolutionary assembly Bonifacio’s anger over what he considered an irregular election and the insult heaped on him by Daniel Tirona, a Magdalo, rankled for long. At Naik, they drew up another document in which they resolved to establish a government independent of, and separate from, that established at Tejeros. An army was to be organized “by persuasion or force” and a military commander of their own choice was to take command of it. Among the forty-one men who signed it were Bonifacio, Artemio Ricarte, Pio del Pilar and Severino de las Alas.
The document posed a potential danger to the cause of the Revolution, for it meant a definite split in the ranks of the revolutionists and an almost certain defeat in the face of a united and well-armed enemy. Philippine Declaration of Independence The Philippine Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 in Cavite II el Viejo (present-day Kawit, Cavite), Philippines. With the public reading of theAct of the Declaration of independence Filipino revolutionary forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain.
The Proclamation on June 12 Independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898 between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite at the ancestral home of General Emilio Aguinaldo some 30 kilometers South ofManila. The event saw the unfurling of the National Flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, and Delfina Herboza, and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the national anthem, now known as Lupang Hinirang, which was composed by Julian Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band.
Biak-Na-Bato Republic Position Name President Emilio Aguinaldo Vice-President Mariano Trias Secretary of Foreign Affairs Antonio Montenegro Secretary of War Emiliano Riego de Dios Secretary of the Interior Isabelo Artacho The constitution of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato was written by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho, who copied the Cuban Constitution of Jimaguayu nearly word-for-word. It provided for the creation of a Supreme Council, which was created on November 2, 1897,
The initial concept of the republic began during the latter part of the Philippine revolution, when the leader of the Katipunan, Emilio Aguinaldo, became surrounded by Spanish forces at his headquarters in Talisay, Batangas. Aguinaldo slipped through the Spanish cordon and, with 500 picked men, proceeded to Biak-na-Bato, a wilderness area at the tri-boundaries of the towns of San Miguel, San Ildefonso and Dona Remedios in Bulacan.  When news of Aguinaldo’s arrival there reached the towns of central Luzon, men from theIlocos provinces, Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Tarlac, and Zambales renewed their armed resistance against the Spanish.
The Biak-na-Bato Republic of 1897 The separation of the Philippines from the Spanish monarchy and their formation into an independent state with its own government called the Philippine Republic has been the end sought by the Revolution in the existing war, begun on the 24th of August, 1896; and , therefore, in its name and by the power delegated by the Filipino people, interpreting faithfully their desires and ambitions, we the representatives of the Revolution, in a meeting at Biac-na-bato, November 1, 1897, unanimously adopted the following articles for the constitution of the State.
Pact of Biak-na-Bato The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on 14 December 1897 created a truce between Spanish Colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera andEmilio Aguinaldo to end the Philippine Revolution. Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were given amnesty and monetary indemnity by the Spanish Government, in return for which the Revolutionary Government would go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo later used the money to purchase firearms.
The pact was signed in San Miguel, Bulacan, in the house of Pablo Tecson, a Philippine Revolutionary captain, later a colonel, who served as brigadier general in the ‘Brigada Del Pilar’ (military troop) of General Gregorio del Pilar during the Philippine Revolution According to historian Sonia M. Zaide, the agreement consisted of three parts: 1. A document called “Program”, generally as described by Agoncillo; 2. A document called “Act of Agreement” which reiterated parts of the “Program” document and hinted at the desire of the Filipinos for reforms but contained no definite agreement by Spain to grant such reforms; 3.
A third document which discussed the question of indemnity, specifying that Spain would pay a total of $1,700,000— $800,000 as above plus $900,000 to be distributed among the civilian population as compensation for the ravages of war On 14 December and 15 December 1897 Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, under which Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and “$800,000 (Mexican)” (Aguinaldo’s description of the amount) as an indemnity. The documents were signed on 14 December and 15 December 1897.
On 23 December, Aguinaldo and other insurgent officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile. $400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the so-called “Hong Kong Junta” and enlarging it into the “Supreme Council of the Nation”. Malolos Congress The Malolos Congress or formally known as the “National Assembly” of representatives was the constituent assembly of the First Philippine Republic. It met at the Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan.
It drafted the Malolos Constitution. The Congress was not much more than a decoration. “That is to show to the foreign correspondents that we Filipinos are civilized, but the bulk of the work in nation building were done at the Malolos Cathedral by the executive branch of government led by(Phiilppine President Emilio) Aguinaldo, who was in command of the army fighting the Americans,” said attorney Cris Santiago, past president of the historical society ofBulacan (known as Samahang Pangkasaysayan ng Bulacan or Sampaka). Leadership President of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic:
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy Prime Minister of the Revolutionary Government/First Philippine Republic (President of the Council of Government): Apolinario M. Mabini Pedro A. Paterno elected on May 7, 1899 President of the National Assembly (of Representatives): Atty. Pedro A. Paterno – Pedro A. Paterno of Santa Cruz, Manila Vice President of the National Assembly (of Representatives): Gregorio Araneta Secretaries of the National Assembly (of Representatives): Atty. Pablo Roque Tecson – Pablo Roque Tecson: Atty. Pablo R. Tecson of Balanga, Bataan and Atty. Pablo de Leon Ocampo: Pablo Ocampo of Quiapo, Manila.
Council of Government (Cabinet) Members Secretary of Finance: Mariano Trias y Closas Hugo Ilagan elected on May 7, 1899 Secretary of the Interior: Teodoro Sandico Severino de las Alas elected on May 7, 1899 Secretary of War: Baldomero Aguinaldo y Baloy Mariano Trias y Closas elected on May 7, 1899 Secretary of Welfare: Gracio Gonzaga Secretary of Foreign Affairs: Apolinario Mabini y Maranan Leon Ma. Guerrero – Leon Maria Guerrero elected on May 7, 1899 Secretary of Public Instruction: Aguedo Velarde Secretary of Public Works and Communication: Maximo Paterno Secretary of Public Works and Communication: Leon Ma.
Guerrero – Leon Maria Guerrero Representatives: Pablo Tecson: Brigadaire General Pablo Ocampo Tecson of San Miguel, Bulacan, who is a family to: Atty. Pablo Roque Tecson of Balanga, Bataan. And other Filipino Revolutionist. Philippine Commission The Philippine Commission was a body appointed by the President of the United States to exercise legislative and limited executive powers in the Philippines. It was first appointed by President William McKinley in 1901. Beginning in 1907, it acted as the upper house of a bicameral Philippine Legislature, with the elected Philippine Assembly acting as lower house.
The Jones Act of 1916 created an electedPhilippine Senate to replace the Philippine Commission. First Philippine Commission On January 20, 1899, President McKinley appointed the First Philippine Commission (the Schurman Commission), a five-person group headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell University, to investigate conditions in the islands and make recommendations. In the report that they issued to the president the following year, the commissioners acknowledged Filipino aspirations for independence; they declared, however, that the Philippines was not ready for it.
Specific recommendations included the establishment of civilian government as rapidly as possible (the American chief executive in the islands at that time was the military governor), including establishment of a bicameral legislature, autonomous governments on the provincial and municipal levels, and a system of free public elementary schools Second Philippine Commission “The Second Philippine Commission (the Taft Commission), appointed by McKinley on March 16, 1900, and headed by William Howard Taft, was granted legislative as well as limited executive powers.
Between September 1900 and August 1902, it issued 499 laws. Ajudicial system was established, including a Supreme Court, and a legal code was drawn up to replace antiquated Spanish ordinances. A civil service was organized. The 1901 municipal code provided for popularly elected presidents, vice presidents, and councilors to serve on municipal boards. The municipal board members were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining municipal properties, and undertaking necessary construction projects; they also elected provincial governors.
On 4 July 1901, Taft became governor of a civil administration for the Philippines. This regime, called the Insular Government, administered the country until 1935. “The Philippine Organic Act of July 1902 stipulated that a Philippine Legislature would be established composed of a lower house, the Philippine Assembly, which would be popularly elected, and an upper house consisting of the Philippine Commission. The two houses would share legislative powers, although the upper house alone would pass laws relating to the Moros and other non-Christian peoples.
The act also provided for extending the United States Bill of Rights to Filipinos and sending two Filipino resident commissioners to Washington to attend sessions of the United States Congress. In July 1907, the first elections for the assembly were held, and the legislature opened its first session on October 16, 1907. death of general antonio luna A rifle shot was heard and the general rushed downstairs to investigate, and there, waiting for him, were Capt. Pedro Janolino and members of the Kawit Battalion of Cavite Province. These were the same soldiers who had refused to take orders from Luna during the battle at Caloocan on Feb.
10, 1899; as punishment, Luna had disarmed and relieved them of their duties. The men mobbed him. Luna was stabbed with daggers and shot. Mortally wounded, he still managed to stagger to the street, away from his assassins. He fired his pistol, but didn’t hit anybody. Martial law under Emilio Aguinaldo After the outbreak of Spanish–American War, Emilio Aguinaldo, who succeeded Bonifacio as the paramount leader of the Filipino revolutionaries, returned to the Philippines from his exile in Hong Kong on May 19, 1898 with 13 of his staff.
He was encouraged to return by the Americans, who saw in him as an opportunity in their war against Spain. After five days, on May 23, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine military forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator. On 12 June, at Aguinaldo’s ancestral home in Cavite, Philippine independence was proclaimed and The Act of Declaration of Philippine Independence was read. The act had been prepared and written in Spanish by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, who also read its proclamation.
On 18 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On June 23, another decree signed by Aguinaldo was issued, replacing the Dictatorial Government with a Revolutionary Government, with himself as President. U. S. military government On August 14, 1898, following the August 12 capture of Manila, the U. S. established a military government in the Philippines under General Merritt asmilitary governor.
During military rule (1898–1901), the U. S. military commander governed the Philippines under the authority of the U. S.president as commander-in-chief of the U. S. armed forces. General Otis succeeded General Merritt as military governor, governing from 1898 to 1900. General Otis was succeeded by General MacArthur, who governed from 1900 to 1901. Under the military government, an American-style school system was introduced, initially with soldiers as teachers; civil courts were organized, including a supreme court; and local governments were established in towns and provinces. The first local election was conducted by General Harold W. Lawton on May 7, 1899, inBaliwag, Bulacan.
Commonwealth era (1935–1946) It was planned that the period 1935–1946 would be devoted to the final adjustments required for a peaceful transition to full independence, a great latitude in autonomy being granted in the meantime. Instead there was war with Japan. On May 14, 1935, an election to fill the newly created office of President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was won by Manuel L. Quezon (Nacionalista Party) and a Filipino government was formed on the basis of principles superficially similar to the US Constitution.
The Commonwealth as established in 1935 featured a very strong executive, a unicameral national assembly, and a supreme court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901. The new government embarked on an ambitious agenda of establishing the basis for national defense, greater control over the economy, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the colonization of the island of Mindanao, and the promotion of local capital and industrialization.
The Commonwealth however, was also faced with agrarian unrest, an uncertain diplomatic and military situation in South East Asia, and uncertainty about the level of United States commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines. In 1939–40, the Philippine Constitution was amended to restore a bicameral Congress, and permit the reelection of President Quezon, previously restricted to a single, six-year term. During the Commonwealth years, Philippines sent one elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives, as Puerto Rico currently does today.
Japanese occupation of the Philippines The Japanese occupation of the Philippines occurred between 1942 and 1945, when the Empire of Japan occupied the Commonwealth of the Philippines during World War II. The invasion of the Philippines started on December 8, 1941, ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. As at Pearl Harbor, the American aircraft were severely damaged in the initial Japanese attack. Lacking air cover, the American Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines withdrew to Java on December 12, 1941. General Douglas MacArthur escaped Corregidor on the night of March 11, 1942 for Australia, 4,000 km away.
The 76,000 starving and sick American and Filipino defenders on Bataan surrendered on April 9, 1942, and were forced to endure the infamous Bataan Death March on which 7,000-10,000 died or were murdered. The 13,000 survivors on Corregidor surrendered on May 6. Japan occupied the Philippines for over three years, until thesurrender of Japan. A highly effective guerilla campaign by Philippine resistance forces controlled sixty percent of the islands, mostly jungle and mountain areas. MacArthur supplied them by submarine, and sent reinforcements and officers.
Filipinos remained loyal to the United States, partly because of the American guarantee of independence, and also because the Japanese had pressed large numbers of Filipinos into work details and even put young Filipino women into brothels. General MacArthur discharged his promise to return to the Philippines on October 20, 1944. The landings on the island of Leyte were accomplished by a force of 700 vessels and 174,000 men. Through December 1944, the islands of Leyteand Mindoro were cleared of Japanese soldiers. Corazon Aquino administration (1986–1992).
1) People Power Revolution 2) Freedom Constitution 3) abolishing the Batasang Pambansa and relieving all public officials. 4) The constitution crippled presidential power to declare martial law, proposed the creation of autonomous regions in theCordilleras and Muslim Mindanao, and restored the presidential form of government and the bicameral Congress On September 16, 1991, despite lobbying by President Aquino, the Philippine Senate rejected a treaty that would have allowed a 10-year extension of the U. S. military bases in the country.
The United States turned over Clark Air Base in Pampanga to the government in November, and Subic Bay Naval Base in Zambales in December 1992, ending almost a century of U. S. military presence in the Philippines. Ramos administration (1992–1998) 1) Early in his administration, Ramos declared “national reconciliation” his highest priority 2) A peace agreement with the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) under Nur Misuari, a major Muslim separatist group fighting for an independent Bangsamoro homeland in Mindanao, was signed in 1996, ending the 24-year old struggle. Estrada administration (1998-2001).
Estrada assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis. The economy did, however, recover from it. From a low -0. 6% growth in 1998 to a moderate growth of 3. 4% by 1999. Like his predecessor there was a similar attempt to change the 1987 constitution. The process is termed as CONCORD or Constitutional Correction for Development. Unlike Charter change under Ramos and Arroyo the CONCORD proposal, according to its proponents, would only amend the ‘restrictive’ economic provisions of the constitution that is considered as impeding the entry of more foreign investments in the Philippines.
However it was not successful in amending the constitution. On March 21, 2000 President Estrada declared an “all-out-war” against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front(MILF) after the worsening secessionist movement in Midanao The government later captured 46 MILF camps including the MILF’s headquarters’, Camp Abubakar.  In October 2000, Ilocos Sur governor Luis “Chavit”, Singson a close Estrada friend, accused the President of receiving collections from jueteng, an illegal numbers game.