Pharmacy – Pharmacology

Pharmacy as in itself is a health profession which includes both health science and chemical science. The importance of pharmacy is not measured in dollars or awards, but in human lives saved and improved. By this it is meant pharmacy serve us all in one way or another, they keep us healthy make us feel better, and help us to live longer happier lives. Pharmacy includes everything we use to safeguard our health. Everyone becomes ill sooner or later, thus the innovation and evolution of pharmaceuticals is a matter of life and death for those working in the field.

The importance of pharmaceuticals in our world is immeasurable and their existence should not be taken for granted or ignored because it helps us all, not just those in need. Wherever civilization arises, we find pharmacy, because it fulfills one of man’s basic needs. This effort to grasp from nature for whatever might shield us from affliction was earlier a service before it came to be known as a profession. Pharmacy thus, has a long history.

Fossils from plants with medicinal properties have been found with the remains of Neanderthals, indicating that early man used these plants as drugs around 50,000 BC. Before the dawn of the history, pharmacy development parallels to that of man when ancient man learned from his instinct, from the observation of birds and beast, using cool water, a leaf, dirt or mud as its first soothing application. Eventually he learned how these method would serve him beat by trial and did benefits others.

Although the cavemen method were crude, many of todays’ medicine spring from sources as simple as elementary as those which were within reach of early man. There is also the earliest known record of the practice of the art of apothecary which is the Babylon, one of the jewels of ancient Mesopotamia which shows how pharmacy evolved with man as practitioners at that time which is about 2600 B. C. before were all in one meaning priest, physician, and pharmacist.

There was medical text on clay tablets recording the first symptoms of illness followed by prescription and directions for compounding and then invocation of god. However these methods are not practices in modern medicine. Then around 2000 B. C. the Chinese had their-Pun Tsao or Great Herbal, which was an extremely interesting manuscript recording 365 drugs written by the Great Emperor Shen Nung who conceivably examined many herbs, barks and roots. Some of the remedies described in this book are toad’s eyelids for colds, and earthworms rolled in honey for gastritis The ancient Egyptians, around 2900 B.

C. , possessed quite a considerable degree of pharmaceutical lore, and their writings tell us that they could supply infusions, decoctions, macerations, inhalations, garg1es, poultices, and in fact practically the same type of preparations the older pharmacists of today, would still recognize. They have the best known and most important pharmaceutical record which is the “Papyrus Ebers” a collection of 800 prescription mentioning 700 drugs The Greeks have also made significant contribution to the world of medicine in two giant steps, which is expressed in the writings of Hippocrates.

Firstly, they began to look for natural causes and effects in producing disease, and secondly they produced the first clearly recognizable descriptions of diseases and epidemics. These first steps in scientific medicine existed side by side with belief in divine powers of the oracles and priests to treat illness. Soon after, the methods of thought expounded by Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle began to escape from the power of the supernatural, which allowed the development of Western science.

There was also among those Greek Philosophers, one of the greatest and natural scientist called the “father of botany”, Theophrastus who studied the nature as in the natural herbs and plant he discovered that some of the plants carried adverse effects, but found some to be poisons During the Greco-Roman era the Greeks and Romans added to each other’s medicinal findings. After the fall of the Roman Empire a majority of advancements were found in the Arab region. They used different sweeteners to make medicines easier to take and handle by the patient.

In AD 726 the Pharmacy shop had appeared in Baghdad, it is the first privately owned shop to be documented. In AD 1190 a hospital in Marrakech designated a specific room as a Pharmacy. This helped to separate the Hospital and Pharmacy and changed the some the responsibilities of the Pharmacist. Then after many years, in 1240, the German Emperor Frederick II issued an edict that essentially separated the practice of medicine and pharmacy, giving rise to the professional pharmacy.

The defining moment, after almost 200 years of argument, came with the passing of the Apothecaries Act of 1815. Prior to this, many apothecaries practiced medicine, but they weren’t supposed to charge for their advice, but only for the drugs they supplied. The outcome of the new Apothecaries Act was a clearer definition of the two streams of practice involving, medicine and pharmacy. Very soon the discovery of the Sulphonamide group of drugs saved many lives in the Second World War, before Penicillin became freely available.

The many technological improvements during the nineteenth century ranging from the stethoscope to X-rays and especially the identification of many of the bacteria responsible for infectious diseases, put clinical observation and treatment on a much firmer empirical basis. In the 19th century, pharmacy began a transformation from an art to a science. Natural products that were long a staple in the pharmaceutical armament were being analyzed for their chemical makeup.

Scientists began exploring the structure of drugs, linking it to the activity of compounds, and they began to synthesize compounds with similar structures. Industry was still in its infancy but the mass production of drug products had started. New standards and new knowledge meant new opportunities for precision in prescribing compounding and dosing; opportunities that pharmacy and medicine had never known before. The 20th century will be forever remembered for its remarkable advances in chemistry, medicine and pharmacy.

Countless new drugs were discovered and manufacturers were literally at war to stay ahead with new patents. The face of pharmacy may have changed over the past 1000 years, but its traditional role remains the same. Although the preparation and preservation of drug products have moved from pharmacy to pharmaceutical industry, the pharmacist continues to fulfill the prescriber’s intention, by not only dispensing a medication but also by providing a quality product, providing advice and information and monitoring drug therapy.

| | Today Now in the present there is a quite formal and routine process that is followed with practically every illness. First a patient becomes ill, of course, or maybe even injured in an accident, but never the less he/she is now in discomfort in some way. The patient sees a doctor or specialist to help them. The doctor is in charge of a person’s healthcare. He works with the person observing and testing the extent of the injury or illness and then advises or prescribes a form of treatment “Role of Family Doctor”.

Then the patient leaves the doctor’s office and he takes the prescription to his local pharmacy where the pharmacist works. The pharmacist is licensed to read and dispense prescribed medications, drugs, or mixtures to the specified patients “Role of the Pharmacist”. The pharmacist is a highly knowledgeable individual who gives advice through counsel to patients, is a specialist in the application and usage of pharmaceuticals, and is responsible for the storage and dispensing of medications “Role of The Pharmacist”.

Now the patient receives his/her medication from the pharmacy and proceeds to use it as directed by the doctor and pharmacist thus completing the process of pharmaceutical care from illness to cure by a medication. No real value can be placed on pharmaceuticals, their importance immeasurable, and their service untimely, they have evolved and changed to what they are today with the ever changing population. Protecting all of mankind whether treating our illnesses, fixing our accidents, or protecting us from disease, pharmaceuticals serve us all and we would most likely not survive without them.

Imagine a world where there were no doctors to help the sick, and not even any drugs like an aspirin to help get through a hard day’s stress. This is the reason so much emphasis is placed on pharmacy because it is so so important to us all and we would have a hard time surviving without them. Pharmaceuticals help the world go round and serve us all it cannot be said any other way. One cannot imagine every drug store, pharmacy, and pharmacist; but on top of all that every doctor, nurse and hospital it is just too much to take in and understand.

This is healthcare it is huge and controls much of our lives and pharmaceuticals are a major piece smack in the middle of the whole thing. There has never been a more exciting time to consider a career in pharmacy. The profession is experiencing a period of unprecedented progress and development. The skills of pharmacists have never been in greater demand and to deliver the latest, cutting-edge treatments and medicines to millions of patients every day. Pharmacy education has been in an almost constant state of change for the past 150 years, since the era when a pharmacist learned by being an apprentice.

Over the years, pharmacy has grown in the form of pharmaceuticals sciences through research and development processes. It is related to products as well as to services. The various drugs discovered and developed are its products and the healthcare it provides comes under the category of services. |Pharmacy involves all the stages that are associated with drugs i. e. discovery, development, action, safety, formulation, use, quality | |control, packaging, storage, marketing, etc. This profession has a large socio-economic relevance to the Indian economy.

In India, this | |sector is among the future economy drivers. It is committed to deliver high quality drugs and formulations at an affordable price, so that| |majority of people can afford them. The transformation of the sector from conventional pharmacy to drug experts, which is both desired and| |necessary to reach the global standards, has already made commendable progress. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Tomorrow Demographic, epidemiological and economic shifts are transforming the pharmaceutical market.

The population is growing and new areas of medical need are emerging. The diseases from which people in developing countries suffer are increasingly similar to those in the developed world. These changes generate huge opportunities for Pharma. Global warming could also have a major effect on the world’s health. Society will become increasingly technology literate and technology driven. Technology will be deployed fully to dispense most prescriptions, provide drug information to patients, and facilitate the exchange of patient-specific data among and within health care systems.

The pace of new discoveries in biotechnology and health care and the appearance of whole new fields of endeavor in recent years, have made for an exciting and challenging time for pharmacists. The increasing demands of understanding how modern medicines work at the molecular level, the shift towards predictive, preventive and personalized health care and challenges from nanotechnology and stem cell technology have added to the need for pharmacists to remain experts in medicine.

Another emerging field which will impact pharmacists is the advent of ‘personalized medicine’, enabled by the genomic revolution. Indeed, the human genome project has led to the identification of over 32,000 genes in human cells. And, through the burgeoning field of pharmacogenetics, it is increasingly apparent that the effectiveness and toxicity of drug regimens vary from patient to patient as they are influenced by the genetic make-up of the individual.

The future of health care is closely intertwined with developments in nanotechnology, stem cells, genomics and proteomics. Nanotechnology is here with us today and is being used in an evolutionary manner to improve the properties of many therapeutics and healthcare products. How these technologies will evolve and be used safely for all our benefit will be one of the great scientific adventures of the 21st century and one in which pharmacists will play an important role.