She was born on the 15th day of April, 1930 at Port Arthur, Texas. Her father, Theodore Quarles Srygley, was an educator and her mother, Grace Stumpe Srygley, was a psychologist. She married an investor, Jackson, C. Mouton, Jr. on December 22, 1953. The Moutons had two daughters named Jane Martha and Jacquelyn Cruse. Jane Srygley Mouton received her Bachelor of Science in Mathematical Education from the University of Texas at Austin in 1950 and later returned to complete a PhD in 1957. She also received a Master’s of Science from Florida State University in 1951.
She was loyal to the University of Texas at Austin with her working positions including being a research scientist from 1953–1957, a social science researcher and instructor from 1957–1959, and assistant professor of psychology from 1959-1964. She was furthermore vice-president of Scientific Methods Inc. from 1961–1981 and has presided as president of the company since 1982. Mouton was a former student of Robert Blake from the University of Texas. Together they are known for their creation of the aforementioned Managerial Grid which was admittedly composed of Mouton’s creation and Blake’s name.
The Grid came into existence when Blake and Mouton were hired as consultants by Exxon. It was during this time that their supposedly combined efforts produced the grid as a method of finding a median between McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y workers. Originally, their work was reflected upon the National Training Laboratories (NTL) who they had worked with as a means of bringing their ideas into the organizations.
Mouton was among the few women to lead one of the NTL’s T-Groups (Training Groups) during the 1950s. However, Blake and Mouton’s methodology was more focused on treating the organizational issues rather than simply diagnosing them. This was contrary to standard NTL practices. Thus, they separated from the company.
Blake had copyrighted the Grid so that only by franchising with him could someone else use the Grid for training, thus ensuring that everyone would use it in the way Blake and Mouton deemed fitting. Therefore, through their work with NTL leading T-Group’s and the creation of Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Blake became famous and Mouton was seemingly allowed to ride on his coat tails, eventually co-founding Scientific Methods, Inc. in 1961. Honors
Honorary member of the faculty at the Institute of Business Administration and Management in Tokyo, Japan Best Writing Award from the American Society for Training and Development (1961–1962) Book Award from the American College of Hospital Administrators for The New Managerial Grid (1980) Book of the Year Award from the American Journal of Nursing (1982) for Grid Approaches for Managerial Leadership in Nursing Book of the Year Award from the American Management Association (1982) for Productivity: The Human Side Dr. Robert R. Blake
Dr. Robert R. Blake was born on January 21, 1918. He studied psychology at Berea College, University of Virginia, where he took his M.A. in 1941, then at the University of Texas at Austin, where he took his Ph.D. in 1947. He stayed at the University of Texas as a professor until 1964. During his career he also receiving an Honorary LL.D in 1992 and lectured at Harvard, Oxford, and Cambridge Universities. He spent some of his early years at the famous Tavistock Clinicin London, as a Fulbright Scholar. Dr. Blake was also a fellow of the American Psychological Association.
Blake and Mouton developed the concept of the Managerial Grid while working together at the University of Texas, and their ideas were tested and developed through the implementation of an organizational development program in the American oil corporation Exxon. In 1955, Blake and Mouton founded Scientific Methods Inc. to provide consultancy services based on the workplace application of ideas from behavioral science. The company was formally incorporated in 1961, and grew to offer Grid-based Organization Development and consultancy program in the areas of individual learning, team development, conflict resolution and strategic modeling in over 30 countries worldwide. Blake and Mouton’s collaboration continued until Jane Mouton’s death in 1987.
They have published numerous articles and about 40 books describing their theories and applying them in a variety of contexts. Dr. Blake also lectured at Harvard, Oxford and Cambridge, and worked on special projects as a Fulbright Scholar at the Tavistock Clinic in London. In 1997, Dr. Robert Blake and the estate of Jane S. Mouton sold Scientific Methods to a long-time Grid Associate. The company was renamed Grid International Inc., and still promotes Grid Organization Development around the world. Dr. Blake remained involved with the company as an associate up until his death in 2004. The Managerial ModelGrid
Blake and Mouton started from the assumption that a manager’s role is to develop attitudes and behaviors in people that promote efficient performance, stimulate creativity and generate innovation. In addition, they believed that it was a manager’s role to foster a climate of positive interaction and learning whereby people could develop their capabilities together. Blake and Mouton believed such behaviors could be taught and learned. The Blake and Mouton Grid was originally developed 1962 as an organization development model. The framework originated from the idea that there often exists, in the minds of managers, an unnecessary distinction between a concern for people and the accomplishment of tasks.
The model put forward the idea that this distinction between people and task is complementary rather than mutually exclusive. They argued that every manager has a clear style of managing that is based on their degree of concern for achieving results (task) and concern for people. At one end of the spectrum is the highly task focused manager who is only interested in getting the work completed regardless of the impact on people. At the other end is the manager who believes that people needs must come before any task demands. Blake and Mouton’s model showed that there are in fact many different managerial styles that fall between these two extremes.
The grid itself is represented as a chart with one-nine scales as shown. The concept distinguishes 5 different leadership styles, based on the concern for people and the concern for production: 1.9 Country Club Leadership
High People/Low Production This style of leader is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
9.1 Produce or Perish Leadership (Task Master)High Production/Low People Also known as Authoritarian or Compliance Leaders, people in this category believe that employees are simply a means to an end. Employee needs are always secondary to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is very autocratic, has strict work rules, policies, and procedures, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate employees. 1.1 Impoverished Leadership
Low Production/ Low People This leader is mostly ineffective. He/she has neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating. The result is a place of disorganization, dissatisfaction and disharmony. 5.5 Middle-of-the-Road Leadership (Dampened Pendulum)
Medium Production/Medium People This style seems to be a balance of the two competing concerns. It may at first appear to be an ideal compromise. Therein lies the problem, though: When you compromise, you necessarily give away a bit of each concern so that neither production nor people needs are fully met. Leaders who use this style settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect. 9.9 Team Leadership
High Production/High People According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the pinnacle of managerial style. These leaders stress production needs and the needs of the people equally highly. The premise here is that employees are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization’s success, their needs and production needs coincide. This creates a team environment based on trust and respect, which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and, as a result, high production. Applications of the Managerial Grid
Analyzing or Coaching a manager, in particular regarding relationships skills such as: dealing with critique, initiative, decision-making, conflict resolution, advocacy (expressing opinions, ideas), inquiry (information seeking) and resilience (reacting to problems or failures). Grid Organization Development Program (Grid OD)
While the Managerial Grid was considered useful in helping managers to understand their own behavior patterns it was recognized that only so much could be achieved through individual management development, and that problems needed to be addressed at work group and organizational level. Consequently, Grid theory was used as a starting point for the development of organization development program designed to enhance managerial effectiveness, resolve conflict and develop teamwork within the organization. The program follows a six-phase approach:
1. Grid seminar2. Team development3. Inter-group development4. Goal setting and strategy development5. Implementation6. StabilizationThe Grid seminar generates awareness of how personal behaviors have an impact on others in the workplace. Participants learn and practice specific skills in teams, and engage in a structured critique that measures activity results on several levels.
The skills are commonsense ones in any workplace, and include, for example, the best ways to take initiative, resolve conflict, or make sound decisions. Participants use Grid theory to clarify personal values and attitudes regarding behaviors, and then work in teams to complete structured activities under time and performance pressures. The seminar is over 90 per cent experiential, placing the responsibility for learning, practice, and change into the hands of participants.
This level of team involvement and responsibility is found to make the learning effective and lasting. The Phases two and three is focus on problem solving and conflict resolution, both within and between work groups. A major concern is to enable teams to develop the ability to work together towards a common goal in a synergistic way. In phase four the focus moves to reaching agreement on broader, organization-wide goals.
Planned changes are implemented in phase five and in the final phase progress are monitored, to ensure that the changes continue in the workplace, and are consolidated and stabilized. This program is applied throughout the organization at all levels, and in large organizations the process may take three to five years to complete.
In the course of the program the focus moves from the behavior of individual managers to the effectiveness of work groups and teams, and the involvement of the whole organization. Over the years the concepts and principles of Grid Organization Development were refined and applied in a variety of different fields.
Several new editions of The Managerial Grid(c) were published, as well as books covering the use of Grid program in areas such as sales management, academic administration, real estate, social work, medicine and even marriage. More recent publications emphasized the application of Grid principles to areas of topical interest such as team-building, change and stress management. Synergogy
Blake and Mouton also developed their own educational theories on how best to teach Grid theories and concepts in the work group context. These are described in the book Synergogy published in 1984. The term ‘synergogy’ was coined by Blake and Mouton, and describes a systematic approach to learning that leads team members to learn from each other in a co-operative and participative way. Synergogy, defined as ‘working together for shared teaching’, was contrasted to pedagogy, where instruction is given by a teacher, and andragogy, where the teacher acts as a facilitator. Four synergogic learning designs were developed to provide a structure for the process of learning. The ‘Team Effectiveness Design’ and the ‘Team Member Teaching Design’ relate to the acquisition of knowledge.
The ‘Performance Judging Design’ relates to the development of skills. Lastly, the ‘Clarifying Attitudes Design’ concerns awareness and development of appropriate attitudes. Techniques employed include individual preparation, presentations, multiple choice and true/false tests and team discussion. The role of the learning administrator is limited to making sure that the learning design is effectively implemented. These methods were first used by Blake and Mouton to teach university courses but were later adapted to workplace training sessions. Books:
Change by Design.Spectacular Teamwork: How To Develop The Leadership Skills For Team Success. Synergogy: A New Strategy For Education, Training And Development. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organization Development. The ManagerialGrid: Key Orientations For Achieving Production Through People. Consultation: A Handbook For Individual & Organizational Development The Managerial Grid
Productivity: The Human SideLeadership Dilemmas- Grid Solutions: A Visionary New Look At A Classic Tool For Defining And Attaining Leadership And Management Excellence Executive Achievement: Making It At The TopThe Marriage Grid Grid for Sales Excellence: Benchmarks For Effective Salesmanship Solving Costly Organizational Conflicts: Achieving Intergroup Trust, Cooperation, And Teamwork Group Dynamics- Key To Decision Making
Corporate Darwinism: An Evolutionary Perspective On Organizing Work In The Dynamic Corporation Diary of An Organizational Development Man
Reference:The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence – Blake, R. & Mouton, J. (1964) The Leadership Grid(c) from Leadership Dilemmas – Grid Solutions, by Robert R. Blake and Anne Adams McCanse (Formerly the Managerial Grid by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton), (Grid Figure: p.29). Next Generation Management Development: The Complete Guide and Resource By Robert D. Cecil, William J. Rothwell p.184-185 Gurus on Leadership By Mark Thomas p.44-49