Therefore human resource management of the enterprises and the organizations ceases to be only organizational and administrative activity and gains new economic and social value. Use in human resource management of new advanced approaches will allow to increase as a whole competitiveness of the enterprise in a certain sector of economy. In many countries of Western Europe and in the USA aspects of human resource management of the companies and firms got great value. Each person possesses considerable personal and labor potential, has a big reserve of qualitatively new possibilities.
In this foreshortening the main objective of the head-manager is the help to the subordinate in the maximum realization of on a workplace. It demands search of such directions of improvement of methods of management which will allow to consider as much as possible a personal factor in creation of a personnel management system. Here into the forefront leaves motivation problems – material and non-material stimulation of the personnel in the organization. These problems are the most actual, from our point of view, as fluidity of qualified personnel, especially from budgetary organizations a bike.
Quality of work as a result worsens and the financial means spent for training of the personnel are lost. The foregoing gives the grounds to consider that this work is actual both with theoretical, and with practical the points of view. (Dryakhlov N. Kupriyanov, 2002) 2. Purpose and research problems The purpose is to develop ways to improve the system of tangible and intangible incentives for staff at this stage to improve the socio-economic impact of their operation.
As an example, will be analyzed by methods of control used by the U. S. multinational corporation General Electric and Kazakhstan in the Municipal Health Organization, “City Maternity Hospital № 5” the city of Almaty. To achieve this goal will be addressed in the following tasks: • Study of the theoretical foundations and current trends encourage staff in Kazakhstan and the United States. • Review the history of the development and improvement of management organization and its staff in the American corporation General Electric.
• Analysis of the organization and personnel stimulation «Town maternity hospital No. 5» cities of Almaty. • Carrying out the comparative characteristic of methods of management by the personnel between the Kazakhstan and American organizations. • Development of ways, of improvement stimulation, the personnel organization on the basis of domestic and American experience. • The recommendations for the introduction of improved incentives for staff in the Municipal “City Maternity Hospital № 5” the city of Almaty.
When writing work were used by the legislative acts, monographs, scientific and educational editions on management and personnel management, the materials of the periodic publications, dedicated to questions of motivation personnel, the formation of systems the employees remuneration and career management, portals consulting firms and sites of educational institutions, the materials of electronic libraries. The basis for analysis of the American Corporation General Electric was materials of analysts and monographs John Welch.
The basis analysis of the system of motivation the work to the «City maternity hospital № 5» served as the documentation of the institution: job descriptions, regulations for departments, the provisions on remuneration of employees, orders and instructions of the management, management accounting data. 3. Place and human resource management role in a control system organization in Kazakhstan and the USA Until the 90s the concept of “personnel management” in this country absent, although each organization has existed and still exists today a subsystem of personnel management and social development of the collective – the personnel department.
Although the bulk of the work performed by human resource management is still linear heads of departments. In the United States – managing staff – an independent group of professionals, managers, whose main objectives – improving production, creative activity and the impact of staff development and staff development program. The main task of the personnel management of any organization is the most efficient use of staff skills in line with the objectives of the enterprise and society.
At the same time should ensure the continued health of individuals and established relations of constructive cooperation between team members and various social groups. The many facets of personnel management involve a lot on the boards in this important issue. There are following aspects of personnel management: • Technical and technological aspect requires take into account the level of a particular production, it features used equipment and technology, operating conditions; • organizational and
economic aspects can uncover issues related to planning the size and composition of employees, the moral and material incentives, the use of working time, etc. ; • The legal aspect of the problem involves the observance of labor laws in HR; • Socio-psychological approach examines the social and psychological support personnel management, introduction of various sociological and psychological procedures in the practice of work; • Pedagogical aspect concerns the problems associated with the educating and training personnel.
As a result of American managers, there are three factors that impact on people in the organization: 1) Hierarchical organization, where the main means of exposure – a relationship of power – the subordination of human pressure on the top, with the help of coercion, control over the distribution of wealth. 2) culture that is produced by the society, organization, group of people shared values, social norms, attitudes of behavior that govern the actions of individuals, forcing the individual to behave in a certain way without visible coercion.
3) Market that is, a network of peer relations, based on the sale of products and services, property relations, balance the interests of the seller and buyer. These factors impact on the practice should be realized in isolation. Which of them is a priority, so is the face of the economic situation in the organization. New service personnel management in Kazakhstan are generally based on traditional services: human resources department, department of labor and wages, the department of health and safety.
In theory, decided to allocate four areas of personnel management functions: a-boron, training and development, evaluation and reward staff. Thus, all the organizations in their work should address the following objectives: • To attract the necessary staff • To train their employees to bring their skills and ability of in accordance with the objectives of the establishment, • To assess the participation of each employee in achieving the goals facing the organization, • To reward its employees for their work.
These objectives are relevant to all organizations. But each is trying to develop their own special methods, procedures, programs that are unique to it and will distinguish it from others. (Kazarny. M, 2003) 4. Analysis of existing management practices of their comparative analysis on the basis of Kazakhstan “City Maternity Hospital № 5” city of Almaty and the American General Electric Company 4. 1 American Experience: general characteristics, methods of management of the organization and its staff.
The history of company
General Electric Company emerged from a pure business reasons. In 1878 Thomas Edison founded the Edison Electric Light Company, and in 1880 actually received a patent on the design of the vacuum bulb (in our homes still burn almost the same lamp). After that, Edison’s goal was the electrification of life: the replacement of gas lighting and the introduction of its light bulbs everywhere. To do this, do light bulbs and electricity were to become widely available and cheap. Needed a well-established system of production delivery and sale of electric current.
When the system required a new part, Edison designed it. If after that he could not find a producer, he opened his own shop. So in 1889 there was Edison General Electric Company, bringing together the entire chain of production of electricity: production of alternators, electric meters, cables, plugs, finally, themselves lights and appliances. At the same time an army of staff are constantly working on improving technology and production optimization. As a result, he was able to reduce the price of light bulbs from $ 1.
25 to $ 0. 50 for 3 years. September 4, 1882 Edison opened a power station on Pearl Street – the first power plant, electricity providing service in New York. Soon after Thomas Edison had already sold the company and remained a member of the Board Of Directors, primarily engaged in inventive activity. The owners of Edison GE and its rival Thomson-Houston Electric (founded in 1883 with the participation of the famous physicist and engineer John Thomson) came to the conclusion on whether the merger of these companies.
Since April 15, 1892 formed General Electric Company. From this date the official history of GE. In 1980 in General electric there is Jack Welch – typical, but the brilliant example of that in English is called the self-educated person. Jack Welch was the specialty of plastic, so the young professional career began at GE Plastics, then a small unit, which is under the direction of Welch subsequently became a multibillion-dollar business.
A year later, he was faced with the first manifestation of bureaucracy, which has become the scourge of the company, the indifference to individuality. But there was a man who kept Welch from dismissal – his boss, Ruben Gutoff, who promised to talented employees more autonomy and better working conditions. This attention to proactive leader of the slave was then one of the basic management principles that Welch introduced into the life of the company. As a result, in 1968, Jack Welch became the youngest senior manager at GE, head of division of GE Plastics.
In 1972, Jack Welch became vice-president of GE, and in 1981 shareholders’ meeting, was elected Chairman of the Board of Directors, and once again became the youngest managers in the post. Welch’s program idea was that screwed is now called the word “restructuring” that is, giving each unit GE status of an independent business with a natural consequence: in order to exist, it must have been actively fighting for profit. Corporation, Welch believed, should be almost independent of the smaller companies that can survive on their mobile solutions.
(work, n. d. ) 4. 2 Management of human resources at GE plants The functional structure of the service personnel management. 1) Human Resources Department serves as the organization of recruitment and selection, including testing, and provides: • Enter the position of new employees; • Organization of service and career planning; • Evaluation of activities; • Vocational guidance; • Interviews with dismissed. 2) Department of wage shall: • Analysis of official duties; • The classification of work and billing;
• The development of payment systems and bonuses; • Revision of tariff rates and individual payment. 3) Division of labor relations with employees responsible for: • Participation in collective agreements and the active conduct of a coherent policy; • Work on the complaints on the basis of participatory procedures established by the labor agreements, and analysis of all disputes; • Promote the development of ties and relations between management and workers at the firm’s individual and group basis; • Maintain personnel files and employment statistics.
4) Division of vocational training and retraining of controls: • Job training, including coaching of new employees; • Apprenticeship training programs for skilled workers from among the employees of the firm; • Special education instructors (masters, technicians and managers), preparation of training materials; • Reimbursement of training costs for individual programs to employees of the company; • Operation with the library fund; • Corporate Edition (factory newspaper, etc.
), collection of innovations; • Relationships with external training centers; • Accounting and statistics on training programs. 5) Department of Social Development is focusing all of the features associated with the creation and management of internal social infrastructure and the provision of additional social benefits to employees the company, as well as their planning, design and economic feasibility of the system, such as: • Collective (group) voluntary insurance (life, health and accident); • The pension system;
• Assistance in the legal protection for employees of the company; • Compensation for dismissal, catering; • The organization of leisure: social and fitness programs (activities). 6) Division of Occupational Safety and health care complex performs the necessary work to ensure safety at work: • developing standards of safety; • carries out examination of goods, projects and equipment for compliance with safety standards; • conducts investigations of accidents with the preparation of relevant reports; • assist in safety at work;
• engaged in education in the field of safety; • providing health care personnel, medical treatment and counseling; • clarifies and analyzes the reasons for the absence of the employee in the workplace. 7) Research Department staff is studying the issues of personnel policy and labor relations, including the collection of external information, examines the state of morale in the organization, and provides: • preparation of background materials;
• The development of forms of documentation for personnel services; • The development of rules, standard practices and procedures of personnel management; • Revision of labor relations; • Data collection and reporting of the administration costs of living, wages in the labor market, the submission of proposals for systems of wages, vacation, etc. ; • Collaboration with all parts of the service in terms of research and statistics.
The structure of the apparatus of the service staff includes: • Division of labor relations, responsible for the preparation of the negotiation of labor agreements and the consideration of labor disputes; • A service for hire, is responsible for recruitment, selection and placement of workers; • Medical Service, whose duties include first aid and advice; • The service of public service employees, including cafeterias and the monitoring of the implementation of recreation programs; • The service due to staff responsible for the production of information manuals for employees and internal publications; • Units dealing with wages, safety, training, staff welfare. (Ltd, n. d. ) 4. 3 The concept of “Six Sigma” in the service of the American health care Every year in the United States from medical errors kill nearly 44,000 – 98,000 Americans. As a result of wrong treatment kills more people than as a result of work-related injuries.
In this case all the attention focused on the work of hospitals, however, and admit mistakes in medical offices, ambulatory surgical centers, health centers, pharmacies. The total cost of medical errors, ending in failure, estimated at U. S. 17 – $ 29 billion, including health care costs (50%). In 2003 the United States for treating the consequences of medical errors has been allocated an additional $ 300 million, representing 0. 3% of annual consumption Medicare hospital. These payments covered less than one third of additional costs that came to the clinic to eliminate the adverse effects of medical errors. Until recently, the U. S. health care has been paid enough attention to security issues. For this reason, the U. S.
health care followed a company like General Electric in the practical implementation of the philosophy of Six Sigma to reduce errors that lead to adverse outcomes. In 2005, more than half of U. S. health maintenance organizations have used the program «Pay-for-performance», developed on the basis of the concept of “Six Sigma”. Further studies demonstrated that the program «Pay-for-performance» led to higher quality patient care at a lower cost. The project was attended by about 260 clinics, and they are all a result of fiscal stimulus significantly increased the level of patient care, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia and coronary artery bypass grafting.
During the two-year program period the percentage of recovery of patients increased from 2. 6 to 4. 1%. Based on the foregoing, we can say that the corporation General Electric and used it in the personnel management practices, can serve as an example of dynamism and psychological development. The concept of “Six Sigma” and multi-functional matrix can be successfully applied in our enterprises, including health care. The methods used training is similar to those in the Kazakhstan health care. The essential difference is the use of General Electric’s highly skilled executives, managers, in that Kazakhstan has paid little attention to the meager, especially in health care. (2005-2011, n.
d. ) 4. 4 Kazakhstan practice: general characteristic, methods of management General characteristics Municipal Health “City Maternity Hospital № 5” is the cost of the health facility in Almaty, providing highly skilled inpatient consultative and diagnostic medical care to women in the field of gynecology and obstetrics. The institution was opened in 1971 and consisted of three divisions: maternity, newborn, and gynecologic. At the present time, “City Maternity Hospital № 5” is the largest medical association in Almaty, which consists of stationary and outpatient section. Inpatient unit consists of a maternity ward and gynecological departments.
Outpatient counseling female presented with a day hospital with 10 beds. In the nursing home is organized round the clock laboratory services, operating rooms, ultrasound and physiotherapy. Source taken (author) The operating unit includes two operating rooms and recovery room. Gynecology department deployed 65 beds and is located in a separate two-storey building. Work rules are intended to ensure that the institution strengthening labor discipline, the proper organization and safe working conditions, the full and efficient use of time, increase work efficiency and quality of care of patients and survivors. House Rules apply to all employees of the institution.
They consist of five parts: • How to hire and dismiss employees. • The main responsibilities of the administration and staff of the station. • Working time and use. • Incentives. • Sanctions for violations of labor discipline. For all categories of staff of the institution have job descriptions, which are fixed points and itemized labor regulations. The duration of leave medical personnel is as follows: Basic – 24 working days Additional – 14 calendar days. Kids Day is provided by law. Medical staff of the facility is entitled to early retirement with 30 – years of experience in medicine (excluding maternity leave, study leave from production).
In 2007-2008, the agencies have been greater than in previous years, the increase in extra money at the expense of doing business (paid services). The greatest demand is for services to ultrasound, ELISA diagnosis of infectious diseases, diagnosis of hormone-ELISA, due to improvement in the technology of these procedures and the latest equipment. Also popular are paid visits to women in childbirth in the hospital. (Unsupported source type (Misc) for source Lab05. ) 4. 5 Methods of Personnel Management in “City Maternity Hospital № 4” in Almaty In personnel management, “City Maternity Hospital № 5” in Almaty, the following groups of methods: • Administrative and organizational management practices: 1.
Regulation of the relationship of employees by the provisions of subdivisions and job descriptions, 2. Using the power of motivation (publication orders, return orders, directives) in controlling current operations facility. • Economic methods of management: 1. Financial incentives for employees: premium as a result of labor, the use of certain categories of employees for special allowances. • Social and psychological methods of control: 1. The development of the employees a sense of belonging to the organization through the formation of standards of service, maintenance of corporate advertising, etc. 2. Encourage employees by ensuring the provision of social guarantees.
In the establishment of a stable system of guaranteed wage: the law provides a guaranteed minimum wage, the introduction of new and changing conditions imposed wage employees shall be notified no later than 1 month (upon receipt of decrees and orders of higher authorities). 5. Comparative analysis between the Kazakh and American organizations So, at the end of the XIX century the control system in the United States was based on copying the English experience in the organization and enterprise. By now it was formed as an organic fusion of theoretical research and best practices. Highly competitive environment and increased susceptibility to new Americans contributed to the creation of an effective strategy in organizing the staff.
Very aptly put his six principles of managing director of the American corporation General Electric Jack Welch: • perceive reality for what it is, without a claim to what it was before or what it would like to see; • Do not manage, and direct; • Be honest with everyone; • implement the changes before they become displaced; • not to compete, in the absence of competitive advantage; • control of their own share, or anyone else do it for you. It is easy to see that the functions of personnel management services in the U. S. and Kazakhstani companies look very similar. But there are also significant differences due to the specifics of the relationship between enterprises with public services. Labor relations in enterprises of Kazakhstan are regulated by a single Code of Federal labor laws (Labor), strictly regulating the relationship between management and employees.
In the Kazakh private companies often this law is not enforced adequately – the employee signs a contract labor hire, in which all of these relationships painted. Thus, the personnel working in enterprises of different ownership forms in Kazakhstan but in different state, in large enterprises, human resource management functions are divided between different departments: Human Resources, Planning and Economic Department, an expert on safety, union representatives, direct heads of departments. From the contents of the functions of hiring and firing in the U. S. and employment in Kazakhstan can be understood that these processes are given a very different focus and meaning. (Voropaev. T. A, 2005) 6. Recommendations for improving management practices in the “City Maternity Hospital № 4”
The existing “City hospital № 5” bonus system does not set wage is dependent on the immediate impact of the staff, focusing only on the qualifications of the employee. For a more effective impact of incentives for staff to introduce a more differentiated system of bonuses. To improve the system of bonuses is important to determine its basic parameters: • The ratio of fixed and variable parts of wages; • The types and frequency of awarding bonuses; • Indicators on which the premium is determined; • The rules for calculating premiums for each indicator. In order to encourage employees of the institution should be charged on the premium objectively evaluated the results, the most strongly influences the final efficiency.
Since the objective evaluation of the results should be taken from the audited data management accounting, then as the main prize is advisable to choose quarterly. To increase staff interest in the outcome of their labor at the site, you can use the system coefficient of labor participation (CoLP). The use of CoLP enables more responsive to the individual contribution of each employee in the results of collective work. Given the CoLP here can be distributed all kinds of awards and collective material incentives, payroll savings resulting from layoffs and not used in the fee for combining trades (positions), the expansion of the service area and increase of work performed, one-time fee, etc.
In establishing the CoLP should be considered: the actual combination of professions (positions), the expansion of service areas, the implementation of more complex activities and tasks of the absent worker, helping other members of the institutions, respect for labor, labor discipline, etc. Implementation of the proposed activities in conjunction with the improvement of management practices will increase the interest of employees in the results of their work and the effectiveness of the management company or institution. 7. Conclusion Currently, the construction of an effective system of employee motivation in the company is one of the main challenges for management.
Using a well designed incentive system will enable the company to reduce turnover and increase productivity. The process allows staff to motivate a number of problems: • allows you to deal with staff turnover (de motivation) to keep valuable employees; • objectively reduces the economic costs of training new employees; • leads to a quality and responsible performance of duties in the management and control subsystem; • create corporate thinking and dedication of staff; • provides economic benefits for the company.
Thus, based on theoretical developments and practical analysis of the situation can be said about the importance of the motivational model as a mechanism to improve the efficiency of enterprise management system.
Based on the foregoing, we can say that the corporation General Electric and used it in the personnel management practices, can serve as an example of dynamism and psychological development. The concept of “Six Sigma” can be successfully applied to the Kazakhstan enterprises, including health care.
The methods used training are similar to those in the Kazakh health. The essential difference is the use of General Electric’s highly skilled executives, managers, to which Kazakhstan is given little attention is scanty, especially in health care. (Kreiner, 2008) References Unsupported source type (Misc) for source Lab05. 2005-2011, a. c. , n. d. businessballs. com. [Online] (1. 5) Available at: http://www. businessballs. com/sixsigma. htm [Accessed 8 Augustus 2012]. Dryakhlov N. Kupriyanov, E. , 2002.
Problems of the theory and practice of management. Kazarny. M, 2003. Staff motivation and emotional competence. S. Peterburg. Kreiner, 2008. Business the way Jack Uelch. 10 secrets of the greatest king in the world of management. Ltd, C. ©. 2. K. M. P. , n. d. HC online. [Online] (1. 5) Available at: http://www. hcamag. com/news/profiles/plugged-in-hr-the-general-electric-strategy/110553/ [Accessed 10 Augustus 2012]. Voropaev. T. A, 2005. The motivation of labor as the basis for personnel policy. Doneck. work, I. a. , n. d. 2012 General Electric Company. [Online] (1. 5) Available at: http://www. ge. com/company/history/index. html [Accessed 13 Augustus 2012].