Since we have set the Metropolitan Police Force as our first example, it would be wise to fully elaborate or discuss its history. Before its creation in the year 1829, law management was lacking an efficient organization and the old system was not capable of coping with the immense changes that were happening in society (History of the metropolitan police, n. d. ). This was of course substantially affected by the migration that was taking place from town to town.
Though the Bow Street Runners were an effective means of dealing with criminals during that time, it was not enough as a mechanism for coping with the demands of the changing times. The parish constable and the reigning “watch” system also failed to live up to the changes happening and issues regarding the maintenance of law and order became an alarming concern, not only of government officials but also by the public. Thus, this led to the creation of a new police force. The result was the creation of the Metropolitan Police Force, or more popularly known as the Scotland Yard.
This creation marked the beginning of “modern policing” and was greatly attributed to Sir Robert Peel (Raza, n. d). According to the Metropolitan database, this new police force was guided by the concept of crime prevention as a primary objective and that the cooperation of public would play an important part in achieving this part. Sir Robert Peel also introduced the idea that police officials need to be civil and courteous to the people (Early policing: print of Sir Robert Peel, n. d. ).
This creation was considered as the first major step in crime detection and its system was emulated by neighboring countries, and also by the United States (Nicol, 2006). Scotland Yard was later known through its extensive investigative techniques and activities. Other countries such as the United States shaped their police force similar to the Metropolitan Police Force. Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles of policing describe how the police force should act and serves as a guideline for the newly created police entity (Robert Peel, n. d. ).
Since it was the public which led to the creation of the new police force, its main theme was the absorption and cooperation of the public in maintaining law and order in society (A history of the nine principles of policing, 2002). Sir Robert Peel’s nine principles highlighted that the police force was a part of the public and they are the representation of the law in everyday life. They must ensure that they have the cooperation of the public since their success in crime prevention and solving crime entirely depends on the help of the public (A history of the nine principles of policing, 2002).
Modern policing was now focused on the interaction with the public and methods for preventing crimes were carved with public cooperation. Some of these methods involved ordinary citizens in preventing or solving crime. Informants are ordinary citizens who supply information to police officials regarding criminal activities and it proved to be useful (Nicol, 2006). Eyewitnesses supply information which cannot be obtained from evidences or there is simply no information regarding certain cases (Nicol, 2006).
Eyewitnesses are commonly useful in determining perpetrators in cases like homicide, murder or robbery. They could be the victims themselves, and criminals pursued by their conscience or an ordinary civilian or passerby who happened to witness the crime, may be useful in its resolution (Unit 5: crime and punishment 1750 -1900. 2006). Although it was Sir Robert Peel who created and passed the bill that lead to the creation of the Metropolitan Police Force, he instructed Colonel Charles Rowan and Richard Mayne the task of organizing the new police force.
Their first agenda was to establish the power of the commissioners who are in charge of the new police force. These two commissioners incorporated the powers of a magistrate in their police duties. By doing so, they enjoy power which is not commonly entrusted to police officials of their time. This change was mainly because of the fragmented police forces which are usually fettered by bureaucratic rules and regulations. Police chiefs back then cannot act swiftly because they were bound by some rules and this caused great delay in responding to law and order situations (Raza, n.
d. ). The Police commissioners were called “Police Magistrate” and with the newly added powers, they could perform or give orders that they could not usually perform back then. The new police force was now independent in a way that it can act on its accord under its legal jurisdiction without being held back by other government offices or officers. According the database of the Metropolitan Police Force, the police force under the first two commissioners was set to absorb other police organizations that were created before the 19th century.
Some of them were the Bow Street Patrols, Constables and the River Police (History of the metropolitan police n. d. ). By incorporating them, it shaped the newly establish Metropolitan Police Force into a much bigger establishment with different staff performing specific duties concerning law and order maintenance. It also put the different police establishments under one roof in which they were under the supervision of two commissioners rather than having separate commissioners.
The latter system resulted in great delay of police responses in times of crisis. The absorption of other police establishments was mainly because of the rapid expansion of communities and continuing migration of people from the countryside to the city proper of London. The absorption not only made the new police force capable of serving the changing society of their time but it also made them flexible enough to respond to different law and order situations. The absorption resulted into a centralized administration of maintaining law and order.