You must understand American federalism to put cities counties and special districts Local gov are the units of gov. That actually deliver the services The necessary by most Texans For the equality of their daily lives Drinking water transportation police protection fire protection public education nd the like ( etc) Local govs may receive part of their money From the state or national govs. Must obey the laws and constitutions of both ( delaines rule) Because these territories of local govs Overlap federalism (inter governmental relations) Is important to understand.
Local govs are facing increasing divers challenges While becoming increasingly diverse themselves Citizens have many opportunities to participate in local gov But few actually take part Most citizens see local gov as less important than national gov . Municipal Governments Weather taxing residents arresting criminals collecting garbage providing public libraries Or repairing streets municipalities determine how millions of Texans live Powers of the municipal gov are outlined and restricted by municipal charter state and national constitutions.
And statues local voters must decide the legal destination of their city General law city is a community with a population of 201 or more may become a general law city By adopting a charter prescribe by general law in active by the Texas legislature. Home rule city is a city with a population greater than 5000 may by majority vote of their residents Adopt a med or repeal a locally drafter charter every home rule city may determine its own forms and power of city gov with more flexibility of taxing powers as long as it does not violate state laws or the constitution.
Home rule cities are better able to code with their own particular problems home rule cities may exercise three powers not held by the state gov. they are recall, initiative and referendum they are four principal forms of municipal gov …. That are in operation in the united states and texas 1. Strong mayor council Is a form of municipal gov. that provides for a central life authorities to manage the complex problems of urban areas Most of the nations largest cities use this form of local gov however only Houston and Pasadena among Texas largest cities have adopted variations of it.
2. Weak marital council is when the mayor is one of several cities executive responsible to the electoral None of the ten largest cities in texas use this form of municipal gov. Ones popular in smaller communities throughout the nation it is now being abounded Because the defuse executive structure The more powers central there are the more difficult problem solving becomes 3. The council manager form of municipal gov has become the most popular Among home rule cities in Texas since it appeared in 1913.
The council appoints a city manager to be responsible for budget coordination and policy implementation A separately elected mayor provides over the council but has no other powers May be a part of the structure the form problems in the majority of Texas home rule cities 4. The commission form of municipal gov. lacks a chief executive Has each commissioner has administrative responsibility over a specific department No Texas home rule city currently has pure commission form of gov Though a few general law towns and villages have variations of this structure.
Although municipal elections in texas are non partisalas elections politics is not eliminated in from local gov All cities and special in districs elections are non particions in texas However party politics is again becoming important In some city elections more and more of texas cities are changing from out large election Or place system To a single member district or comultive voting system Texas increasing levels of urbanization education, and economic development have made the state More diverse economically culturally and politically.
For example there are more Latino elective officials in Texas than in any other state With most of them serving at the local levels. In the eyes of most citizens and city officials the major jobs of city gov is to provide basic services That affects peoples day to day lives police, fire, streets, water, suwer, cementation, and perhaps parks and recreation. Municipalities also regulate important aspects of our lives notabilly soaning construction food service and cementation Municipals govs may raise founds from a variety of sources including tax fees and borrowing.