Institutional Corrections

Courts are part of the judiciary system, which together with the legislative and executive form the three independent and separate branches of the Federal government. Courts do not make laws nor do they implement them. Courts only interpret the laws to resolve disputes, in the course of which it determines who has breached what laws and hands over the corresponding punishments. The constitution of most countries particularly of the U.S provides several protections for the independent working of the judicial system. For instance federal judges of the U.S are appointed for life and can be removed only by impeachment. The federal judges have a compensation package that cannot be reduced even by the president or the congress. Such measures enable the judges to hear cases free of political influence and favors.

Community Corrections

Community correction programs are undertaken by the Bureau of Prisons in agreement with state or local governments and private facilities. Community correction is directed towards the confinement of federal juveniles and other federal inmates. Community service order, either as a probation condition or as a separate order, would require offenders to serve the community. Inmates nearing the end of the confinement term are referred to the residential re-entry centers (RRCs). At the RRC they are offered counseling on employment and job placement, financial assistance and other services to gradually rebuild their life, by re-integrating with the society. The offender’s activities are supervised in this readjustment phase. Community programs not only help in reducing prison population but are also seen to be more effective than imprisonment.

Institutional Corrections

The Institutional correctional systems also known as the prison systems, intends to reform prison inmates through its facilities and programs. Prisons are classified by its security like maximum, medium or minimum depending on the type of inmates they handle. Maximum security prisons have severe restrictions on the movement of inmates while minimum security prisons normally lets inmates walk freely. Institutional corrections are aimed at replacing correctional control with self-control through its treatment, programs and activities.