Immigration is the movement of people from other countries that come into another country of especially which they are not a native in order to settle there. Immigration is made for diverse of reasons. The most important of these are escape from poverty, economic, social, political reasons, natural sisaster, unimployment and live in clover. Other causes are retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new style of international immigration.
For example British citizens would rather to immigrate to Spain or Italy or retired Canadian citizens to the US. While for some migrants education is the primary reason, some migrants has personal reasons, relationship between family or a partner or marriage. As can be seen there are many reasons to migrate and in more detailed examined we can see more reasons. Over the past quarter century the number of international migrants has doubled to more than 200m this trend is set to increase.
(See Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan in book, “Exceptional People”) If rich countries were to admit enough migrants from poor countries to expand their own labour forces by a mere 3%, the world would be richer, according to one estimate, by $356 billion a year. (2) For instance if implemented within a well thought out policy, migration can be the most effective tool yet devised for reducing global poverty. There are pros and cons of migration for poor countries. Firstly in poor contries are loosing their the most intelligent peoples by immigration.
This situation is causing damage to their economic and social country situatin. On the other hand people in poor countries to attain commercial skills. Returning expatriates will enrich their homeland by bringing new skills, new experiences, new contacts and foreing earned money. Movement of skilled workforce helps improving countries and it advantages the migrants themselves. Moreover migrants often create job opportunities for natives. . Author says Indian entrepreneurs in San Francisco create new technology firms.
Mexican nannies hold babies while American mothers go out to work. Migrants come when their services are wanted and stay away when they are not. (2) Due to an ageing population advanced economies will need a skilled younger labour force which can be supplied by poor countries. More mobile skilled labour forced will result an highly competetive market place. In previous centuries, migrants would struggle to maintain contact with home once they immigrated. But today, with the effective use of technology, a professional worker can Skype his family in India, from a taxi in New York. This ‘shrinking’ world because of technology, makes it easier for todays migrant.
Despite the advantages of technology to the migrant , and the ease of movement of products, services and information, the control of the migration of people across borders has become more stringent – countries have implemented tight controls on migrants. Adding to the difficulty, being a citizen has two aspects – a legal aspect and a form of identity.
Rights and duties come with citizenship but feeling of being part of the national community helps to forms national identity. The global society struggles with these issues, as it becomes increasingly more difficult to establish a policy of how to deal with who is a citizen and who isn’t. The issue of ‘us’ and ‘them’ becomes more blurred and in effect has an impact on foreigners and citizens alike.. Understanding public opinion on immigration in britain states say “Our poll supported previous findings that a large majority of people in Britain favour cuts in immigration.
69% of respondents to the survey we commissioned said they want immigration reduced. ” And also some other statistic results are more support for reducing permanent immigration (57%) than temporary immigration (47%). There is majority support for reducing immigration of low-skilled workers (64%), extended family members (58%), and asylum seekers (56%). (1) As a result of this negative perception of migration, countries are keen to imlement tight bordercontrols. This then leads onto many issues – two key points are refugee protection and national identity.
Global migration brings with it a number of distinct advantages both to the migrant worker and the host country as well experience and funds back to the country of origin when a foreigner returns home. Advantages such as filling a skilled position in the host country or improving the wealth of the original nation as obvious. But with these advantages comes a price, host citizens feel threatened by cheaper labour, poorer couintries lose skilled workers to foreign lands that pay more and in many countries a nationalistic additiude can arise.
So the challenge is set for both citizens and policy makers to take advantage of the situation and form policies and attitudes that will both benefit advanced nations and the less advantaged countries.
Clearly explained policies by goverments controlling and permitting migration will, in the long term, bring wealth and a positive attitude to the movement of outr global society. (1) http://migrationobservatory. ox. ac. uk/understanding-uk-public-opinion/executive-summary (2) http://www. economist. com/node/18741382 (3) http://global-ejournal. org/tag/migration.