Currently in the U. K. today, there are five voting systems implemented in various places across England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales allowing voters to take part in separate systems which generally influence different outcomes in elections. These separate voting systems are employed for numerous reasons and circumstances that utilize a distinctive look on U. K. poslitics and parliament. Each separate system provides independent outcomes. There are systems that put into traditional practice of what citizens are accustomed to.
These systems enforce the distinct regulations of the right to vote, and assurance of one vote equals one person. An example of a system that put this theory into effect is First Past the Post (FPTP). This is the current system used in the U. K. General Elections, and demonstrates a straightforward example of an electoral system that directly effects U. K government and political parties. The use of simple plurality of votes ensures that this system favours larger parties, as landslide election victories usually favour either Labour or Conservative parties.
This affects the U. K government directly as the two main parties in the U. K. are Labour and Conservative. This proposes what is seen as a two-party system in the U. K. , where these two political parties alternate in government, ensuring other political parties gain little electoral success, as political power is focused between these two candidates. However, it can be seen that this system allows governments to govern; that it enjoys the majority control, and can run by the set of rules the party executes on its own.
Conversely, this idea is opposed by the use of a different system, Regional Party List. This system is seen as "pure", as it ensures proportional representation, further certifying fairness to all parties listed in the election. Parties are allocated seats in direct proportion to the votes they gain in each regional constituency. This is a system where smaller parties usually benefit from, gaining seats from the choice of voters, and power as they decide where candidates are placed on the party list. Unlike the First Past the Post system, Regional Party Lists promote the use of coalition government.
This is when no party has an overall majority, and the government is composed of members of more than one government. In spite of the promotion of coalition governments from Regional Party Lists, they are deemed as weak and ineffective governments by other systems, as they seek legislative support from two or more parties. This can lead to adversarial politics between parties that cannot reach a consensus, and cause conflict in government, resulting in a deteriorated and unstable form of government. This system is currently in use for the European Parliament elections.
Although coalition party-governments can be seen as unstable choices of government, there are certain circumstances where it can seen as appropriate in U. K. politics. For instance, with the conflict of the Catholic and Protestant religions in Northern Ireland, a coalition government needed to be formed between the two main parties, the Democratic Unionist Party and Sinn Fein; with each religious belief behind each party. The system used to elect these two parties into a power sharing coalition government was Single Transferable Vote (STV).
This system is highly proportional as parties may only be elected if they reach a quota of votes. Citizens are capable of ranking their preferred choices in order: e. g. 1,2,3… This ensures that before the coalition was formed, this system would have the biggest and right impact on the government, as it was an appropriate choice for these two parties to form a coalition, as conflict in and out of the government should be considered and dealt with.
In conclusion, I believe that these five systems have separate, but direct impacts on U. K. parliament and politics as different systems are needed to be accounted for in different circumstances. Each of these systems introduced in the U. K. allow voters to take part in these elections, and choose their government. The systems can be used to influence citizens voting, and favour smaller parties (proportional voting). But this can be contrasted with disproportional voting, such as systems like FPTP, which on the majority favours the larger parties, causing landslide victories for Labour and Conservative.