A government is a body having the power and authority to enforce laws and rules within a group. Government may be formed at various levels: local, regional and national. Government includes anarchies, monarchies, dictatorships and democracy. Anarchy means an imposed rule. Monarchies are kingdom ruled by kings and queens. Dictatorship is an autocratic government ruled by a dictator. It is a rule which has no restriction of law. Democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people. People choose representatives who form the government.
History of civilizations says that governments came into existence with the increase in complexness of the society. Certain laws and norms were laid by the society, which needed a law keeper. In ancient civilizations the King was given the highest power, was looked up to as a representative of God and the followers had a duty to obey him. This formed the basis of the government. Thus the major civilizations of the world formed governments to ensure regulated activities of trade, education, health, and social well being of its people.
It gave birth to local government which later paved way for state and national governments. Need of having a government was felt more when it became important to control the chaos and establish laws, punish the wrong, reward the virtuous and respect tradition. National governments were expected to look after the security of its territory, have diplomatic relationships with other territories, have infrastructure of administration, justice and social welfare. A government became a political body that was the keeper of, enforcer of law.
In modern world governments exist to serve people, fulfill needs and wishes of its people. It is bound by a set of law which forms the constitution of the nation. These laws are alike for the government and the masses. The world today is a spectator of various forms of government. Most nations have official names of the government. Australia, the Bahamas and Dominica are each a Commonwealth. Luxembourg is a Grand Dutchy. United Arab Emirates is a collection of Muslim states with each being an ‘emirate’. Malaysia, Russia, Switzerland, Saint Kitts & Nevis are each a federation. Libya calls its government a ‘Jamahiriya’.
Of the thirty three kingdoms in the world, fifteen are ‘realms’, while eighteen are termed like united Kingdom with Northern Ireland form United Kingdom. Andorra, Lichtenstein and Monaco are called principality. Republics are the highest in number with hundred and thirty-two nations declaring themselves as republic. Many republics are known as democracy like Srilanka is a Democratic Socialist Republic. North Korea is a Democratic People’s Republic. Countries emphasizing autonomy call themselves Federal Republic, Democratic Republic, Islamic republic declaring and emphasizing their individual presence.
Eleven nations call themselves states; Burma declares itself a union while Brunei and Oman are Sultanates. Governments of various countries aim at enforcing the law, providing security and justice to its citizens, so that the nation prospers under its guidance. It is the law giver and law keeper. A nation’s wellbeing depends, to an extent, on the policies made by the government for its people and implementation of those policies. A prudent government makes conscientious citizens, who make the country proud .
Reference Retrieved from the Web on 26. 10. 07 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Government