Political turmoil in Europe

For this “social acceptance” to work the terrorist group must be isolated from mainstream society so as to be able to reject the norms of the common societies. In justifying the acts of terrorism to which a terrorist must act upon, a terrorist is isolated prior to the mission and interacting only with others that are involved in the mission. The processes during such period of isolation involve the constant indoctrination in the importance of the mission and the relevance of the act for the goals and principles of the group.

Group reinforcements on reminding that the acts and goals that are to be committed are more important than human life become crucial in the criminal’s justification of the act. This is so as the terrorists must believe that violence is necessary. Hence, the group develops its own standard of “acceptable norms” so as to be able to morally justify the terror acts. Constant reinforcement among terrorist groups, therefore, produces behaviors and ideologies that conform to the group’s ideals and as such allow “social acceptance” and moral thwarting that justify the acts of terrorism.

Aside from group reinforcement, the ideologies and objectives of terrorists are also determinants on how terrorists justify their actions of hurting and even killing the innocents and the non combatants. Thus, the doctrine of necessity justification. Religiously oriented groups who believe that killing and making  non- believers suffer from pain and damages justify their acts of terrorism as moral duty and as such, the non-believers and the “unfaithful” who may be  non-combatants are considered worthy of pain and death. Of particular interest regarding this is the issue on Jihad and Islam.

Jihad, or holy war has created a negative connotation and reputation especially in the West following the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington where civilians have become the targets of the perpetrators. The United States attributed the attacks to the Al-Qaeda group and Osama Bin Laden. The motives and what seemingly are the justifications for the attacks are Bin Laden’s declaration of holy war against the United States and a Fatwa, a legal pronouncement in Islam signed by Bin Laden and others calling for the killing of American Civilians in 1998.

The said Fatwa orders to kill Americans everywhere in retaliation for the threats to strike Iraq. Osama Bin Laden and the Al Qaeda terrorist group justify their attacks such that in Bin Laden’s own words "Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people". Islam is used by some religiously oriented terror groups and hence the term Islamic extremist terrorism where practitioners and supporters justify their acts of terrorism even among the innocent and the civilians as a way of furthering the goals of their religion, Islam.

Justification for terrorism comes in the forms of the notion and claim of defending the Islam and the Muslim community, and as a form of retaliation for the aggressions against Muslims. Islamist extremists sometimes claim they are defending Islam and the Muslim community, or that they are acting in retaliation for what they see as aggression against Muslims by Israel and by various western countries such as the United States.

For the groups who have secular or social motivations, hurting and killing the innocents and the non-combatants are justified in such a way that these people are representative and have direct relation to an enemy entity and authority. Attacking the innocent becomes symbolic of the economic exploitation, social injustices and political repressions to which these groups are against of. 3. Explain the structure and organization common to terror groups. What elements of their structure is most challenging for group leadership in your estimation?

Also, how might law enforcement and intelligence agencies exploit the structural impediments found in terror organizations? Finally, what is it about their structures that are most challenging to law enforcement and intelligence agencies? The structure and organization of terror groups are developed so as to be functional in hostile and oftentimes dangerous environments where they operate. Networked organizational structure is commonly preferred by terrorist groups especially those with larger structure and larger number of members. This kind of organization is of cellular structure with different cells operating independently.

Criminal acts are carried out by small, secretive and isolated cells. This organizational structure protects the members of the group such that when some members of the group are captured, the safety and identity of other members are protected or the information regarding other members that the captured members can give can become limited. The cells may be organized based on family relationship, geographical relationship or specific actions or tasks. One group may be doing the intelligence work, another group is responsible for the weapons that will be used, and another group is assigned to perform the attack.

Multifunctional cells can also be formed. Cell members remain in close contact with each other to provide group reinforcements. The cell leader is normally the only person who communicates and coordinates with the higher levels and other cells. Moreover, some intelligence and information gathered by the other cells cannot be readily given and easily sent to other groups that might need such information because of the idea of cell isolation and independence. Most terrorist groups are also small in number as the size of the organization becomes crucial to protect the secrets and information regarding the organization.

The elements of terror group structure that is most challenging for group leadership is the structure of isolated and independent cells. This holds true most especially in cases where attacks are executed by only one cell and without the other cells or other parts of the organizations having knowledge of the plans. The leadership in this case, does not have any knowledge on the act being planned and would only be informed only after the execution of the acts. This makes it quite challenging for cell leaders to communicate with other cell members regarding the achievability of the plans and actions.

This is the reason why some terrorist groups especially those of political nature adopt a more hierarchical structure so as to be able to coordinate terrorist violence with political actions. Moreover, it is sometimes necessary for these groups to avoid particular targets in support of their political agenda and objectives. Considering the secretive and cellular structure of the terrorist organizations, it is rather challenging and difficult for law enforcement and intelligence agencies to combat terrorism. However, with the organizational structure and practices of terrorist groups, infiltration and intelligence gathering may be considered.

Infiltration however, endangers those assigned to do the tasks and even if successful, can only guarantee few arrests and information such that the cellular organization of terrorist groups makes it difficult for the adversary or spies to break through the entire organization. Personnel within one cell are often unaware of the existence of other cells and, therefore, cannot divulge sensitive information to infiltrators. As such, the cell oriented structure of these organizations become challenging to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.

No one knows much of other cells and the structure of the organization making infiltration and eliminating the terrorist group more difficult and time consuming. Moreover, this organizational structure with lack of central operational control has made undercover penetration by the police and other government agencies ineffective 4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington’s 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots—namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations?

Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy efforts to thwart terrorism? According to Samuel Huntington, “the most important conflicts of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating these civilizations from one another”. He defended this theory by stating that: 1. Differences among civilizations are not only real; they are basic. This means that civilizations differ from each other in history, language, culture, tradition and religion. These differences are not negligible and some of these differences have generated violence and conflicts.

2. The World is becoming a smaller place. With the advent of globalization, the interaction among different people coming from different civilizations is increasing and along with this, an awareness of differences between and among civilizations within a civilization. This also resurrects differences and animosities between civilizations that are rooted back in history. 3. The processes of economic modernization and social change throughout the world are separating people from longstanding local identities and weaken the nation state as a source of identity.

Religions and movements come in to provide a basis for identity especially among people active in fundamentalist movements. The identity and commitment of these people transcends boundaries and unite civilizations. 4. The growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the dual role of the West. Such that the West is at the peak of its power prompt non- Western civilizations to “re-build” their roots with the desire, will and resources to shape the world in non-Western ways. As such, de –westernization occur among non-Western countries while the American culture becomes more popular among westerners.

5. Cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. In conflicts between civilizations cultural characteristics and differences are difficult to blend or to give up to other cultures. Religion discriminates a person, which therefore explains why differences in identities of people are harder to resolve. 6. Economic regionalism is increasing. Successful economic regionalism which oftentimes requires deep integration entails common civilization, culture and background.

The European Union belongs to European civilization while North American Free Trade Area comprises American cultures. These regional blocs may therefore create economic competition among different union and consequently different cultures and civilizations. This model for cultures and civilizations has its implications with terrorism such that as mentioned, the evolving structure of cultures and civilizations pave ways for stronger sense of identities and ideals that may provoke violence rooted way back in history or as an effect of the evolving times.

It also shows that at present, the conflicts will be based on cultural and religious differences. According to Huntington, the immutable gaps between people because of culture and religion result to clash in civilizations. Moreover, when western entities are presented as universal and other civilizations are forced to apply them in their countries, there results a clash of civilizations. “Particularly, it leads the Muslim community to rebel against these universal values because these “universal” values don’t exist in Islam according to Huntington.

And that’s why Huntington claims that Islam would challenge the Western civilization” (Sonuvar, 2005). The implication on these for law enforcement such that the cause of terrorism has deeper roots as in the clash of civilizations is that it will be difficult among law enforcers and authorities to implement rules and regulations that serve only the ideals of one culture. For example, it will be difficult among law enforcers to declare as illegal acts what comprise the belief and culture of other groups that also belong to the same society.

This also has its implications for American foreign policy as Huntington’s view of westernization may point out terrorism as a result of American politics that is applied to the rest of the world. The September 11 attack is an indication of clash of civilizations. America was spreading its influence to the rest of the world and enticing cooperation of other countries with the United States which is disagreed upon by other nations and cultures. As such, America should be careful in its foreign policies and most especially in its dealings with countries that are of different culture and civilization.

5. Describe anarchist and socialist movements of the 19th Century. Which activists within those movements were most pivotal in giving us terrorism as we know it today? Also, in your own opinion, how should modern America deal with fomenters of political violence when they do so while in exile through writing and speaking? Should America “go after” such people given the observation from history that other exiled thinkers/revolutionaries have had great influence with violent and long-standing consequences? The Anarchist movement was formed in 19th century Europe.

As with the socialist movement, the anarchist movements had its major transformation during this stage as prior to this period, the word anarchist is originally a term of abuse. As the political turmoil in Europe began to recede in the 1860’s, anarchist thoughts re-emerged which led to the creation of an avowedly anarchist movement. Socialism has had its major transformation during the mid 19th century as socialism was turned into a political doctrine when Marx and Engel developed their own concept of socialism as a result of revolutionary struggle between the proletariat and bourgeoisie.

Thus, socialist movement during this stage is on transition from idealists to fundamentalists of socialism. References Anarchism: A documentary history of libertarian ideas. Retrieved August 7, 2006, from http://www. blackrosebooks. net/anarism2. htm Huntington, Samuel P. (1993). The Clash of Civilizations Retrieved August 7, 2006, from http://www. alamut. com/subj/economics/misc/clash. html