Globalization according to Clark and Wallace (2003) refers to a “greater interconnectedness of the world’s financial, economic, technological, political, cultural, sociological, ecological, and geographical systems” (p. 447). Globalization has various effects both positive and negative on the countries that choose to achieve the worldwide connection. In the case of Nigeria, which is classified by the U.S Department of State as a developing country, globalization occurs in four major forms, which are cultural, economic, technological and ecological. Positive effects of Globalization
Cultural: The rate at which Nigeria is globalizing its culture has allowed the country to showcase its heritage to other people of the world. It has also allowed others to become more accepting of Nigerian cultural values. Economic: The discovery of Crude Oil in Nigeria increased the countries wealth through export-centered growth. This moved Nigeria away from its original dependency on agriculture for revenue.
Technological: This form of globalization has aided Nigeria in its entry into the “global village” (Akinboye n.p) that technological globalization aims to achieve. This advancement has helped the research and development facilities in the country to progress to the level that it has attained today. Ecological: This form of globalization has opened Nigeria’s doors to individuals of all other nations with many other nationalities residing in the country along with Nigerians.
Negative effects of Globalization Although globalization seems to have improved the standards of life in Nigeria there are always two sides to a coin therefore globalization has also caused some not so desirable effects in the country. Cultural: The traditional Nigerian culture has been turned into much more of a commodity whereby it has been converted to various forms of goods and services to be marketed all around the world.
The changes to the culture to be able to cope with these have begun the slow eradication of Nigeria’s original culture that is dying along with the older generation of Nigerians who have firsthand knowledge of the cultural diversity of the country. Economic: In the attempt to attain economic globalization Nigeria has resorted to overdependence on its crude oil exports. Also Nigeria’s major export of crude oil is managed by transnational’s such as Chevron and Shell. This dependence on oil has ravaged the Niger-Delta area of Nigeria where the oil is located and caused mass environmental degradation.
Technological: This form of globalization has introduced a form of scamming called 419. The digit “refers to the article of the Nigerian Criminal Code dealing with fraud” (Nigerian Scam n.p). This has enjoyed prosperity as a result of the global village concept that technological globalization promotes. Ecological: Globalization ecologically in Nigeria has led to rapid migration to the city of Lagos in Nigeria (refer to fig.1) and has made it the most populated city in Africa with a population close to about 10 million people. The area incorporates about 1000km² and has a density of 7,941 per km².
Evidently, it can be concluded that globalization has rather introduced Nigeria to a great deal of problems as there are more reasons aiding the condemnation of globalization in Nigeria as a problem rather than an attempt to better the country. Therefore globalization has effected the technological, cultural, ecological and economic aspects of Nigeria negatively.